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1 Analysis of the Influence of Mother Tongue on Students Performance in English in KCSE in Public Day Secondary Schools in Gatundu District, Kiambu County, Kenya JULIUS ANGOLI ATETWE A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Master of Education in Curriculum Studies and Instruction THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA Nairobi, Kenya SEPTEMBER, 2013 i

2 DECLARATION This thesis is my original work and has not been presented for examination in any other university. Sign:. Date: Reg. No: Name: Julius Angoli Atetwe This research thesis has been submitted with our approval as university supervisors Sign: Date:.. Name: Dr. Elizabeth Ngumbi Lecturer & HOD Curriculum Studies & Instruction, Catholic University of Eastern Africa Sign:. Date:. Name: Dr. Anne Kanga Senior Lecturer, Catholic University of Eastern Africa ii

3 DEDICATION This research thesis is dedicated to my wife Esther Angoli, my daughters Vanessa Angoli and Alicia-Irene Angoli, my mother Esther Ayako, my sister Hildah Atetwe, my brothers Felix Opati and Francis Nyasili for encouragement and inspiration they gave me throughout the process of writing this thesis. May it be an inspiration to love, hard work, and to their attainment of great success in life and academic heights for the betterment of the society. iii

4 ABSTRACT This study sought to find out the influence of use of mother tongue on students performance of English in KCSE in Gatundu District, Kiambu County, Kenya. Literature from across the globe, regionally and locally was reviewed to provide various perspectives regarding the use of mother tongue in school and its influence on performance in English. The literature reviewed highlights how first language affects second language. It discusses both content in favour of use of mother tongue and content against the use of mother tongue among other issues. In this study, the target populations were students and English teachers from public day secondary schools in Gatundu. Five Schools were sampled using simple random sampling while 191 students were sampled using stratified sampling and systematic random sampling respectively. Eight Teachers were sampled using purposive sampling technique. The study used cross-sectional survey design. Questionnaires were used to collect data from students and teachers, while an interview guide was used to collect data from the teachers. Quantitative data was summarized using descriptive statistics and presented using tables and bar graphs while qualitative data was put under themes and presented in narratives. The study found out that use of mother tongue had a negative influence in performance of English in public day secondary schools of Gatundu. It emerged from the study that use of mother tongue influences the way students write and pronounce in English, hence negatively influencing the performance of English in KCSE. Among other recommendations, the study recommended that teachers should come up with teaching methods that are interactive in the English curriculum so as to ensure that students are given an opportunity to interact with each other in English. Finally, the study suggests that this research should be replicated in other districts where students do not perform well in English to corroborate findings on how mother tongue influences performance of English. iv

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am sincerely thankful to almighty God who has seen me through this major task of writing this thesis. My sincere gratitude goes to Him for granting me the much needed energy, finance and good health to complete the thesis. Similarly, I am very grateful to all those who contributed towards the success of this thesis. In writing this thesis, I heavily relied on the counsel and guidance of my supervisors, Dr. Elizabeth Ngumbi and Dr. Anne Kanga. I am sincerely grateful for their commitment and the time they accorded me during the writing of this thesis. I sincerely acknowledge the support of my classmates; Antony Njuguna, Alice Wanjala, Purity Kagwiria Muchena and Esther Atambo. It was because of their friendly support that I successfully managed to confidently work on my thesis. Furthermore, much gratitude goes to my wife, children and brothers who gave me both moral and financial support to complete this work. Finally, I wish to thank the students, teachers and staff at Gatundu District Education Office who gave me the information that supported my study. To all, I say thank you and God bless you abundantly. v

6 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS D.E.O K.C.P.E K.C.S.E KNEC M.O.E M.T.E N.C.S.T UNESCO UPC District Education Officer Kenya Certificate of Primary Education Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Kenya National Examination Council Ministry of Education Mother Tongue Education National Council for Science and Technology United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Unified Primary Curriculum vi

7 TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION... ii DEDICATION... iii ABSTRACT... iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... v ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS... vi TABLE OF CONTENTS... vii LIST OF TABLES... xi LIST OF FIGURES... xii CHAPTER ONE... 1 Introduction Background to the Problem Policy Documents that Influence Language in Kenyan Education System Performance of English Statement of the Problem Research Questions Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Operational Definition of Terms CHAPTER TWO Literature Review vii

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8 2.1 Introduction Global Perspectives on First Language Influence on Second Language Regional Perspectives on Mother Tongue Influence on Learning English Local Perspectives on Mother Tongue Influence on Performance of English Summary of Reviewed Literature CHAPTER THREE Research Design and Methodology Introduction Research Design Target Population Description of the Sample and Sampling Procedures Sampling of Schools Sampling of Students Sampling of Teachers Description of Research Instruments Pilot Study Validity and Reliability of the Instruments Validity Reliability Data Collection Procedures Data Analysis Procedures Ethical Considerations CHAPTER FOUR viii

9 Presentation, Interpretation and Discussion of Findings Introduction Questionnaire Return Rate Background Information of the Participants Prevalence of Use of Mother Tongue Students Response on Prevalence of Use of Mother Tongue Teachers Response on Prevalence of Use of Mother Tongue Perception of Teachers and Students on the Influence of Mother Tongue on Performance of English Perception of Students on the Influence of Mother Tongue on Performance of English Perception of Teachers on the influence of Mother Tongue on Performance in English Measures to be Taken to Curb Use of Mother Tongue Challenges Brought About by Use of Mother Tongue Strategies to Improve Performance in English CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Introduction Summary of the Study Study Findings Conclusion Recommendations Suggested Areas for Further Study References ix

10 Appendices Appendix 1: A List of Public Secondary Schools in Gatundu South District Appendix 2: A List of Public Day Secondary Schools in Gatundu South District Appendix 3: KCSE English Performance: Gatundu Public Boarding Secondary Schools Appendix 4: KCSE English Performance: Gatundu Public Day Secondary Schools Appendix 5: Students Questionnaire Appendix 6: Teachers Questionnaire Appendix 7: Interview Guide for Teachers Appendix 8: Introduction Letter from University... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix 9: Introduction Letter from National Council of Science and Technology... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix 10: Research Permit... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix 11: Introduction Letter from Deputy County Commissioner... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix 12: Introduction Letter from DEO... Error! Bookmark not defined. x

11 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Summary of Sampling Matrix Table 2: Responses on Age Distribution of the Students Participants Table 3: Class of the Students Participants Table 4: Responses on Gender Distribution of the Teachers of English Table 5: Responses on Length of Teaching Experience Table 6: Students Responses on Prevelence of Use of Mother Tongue Table 7: Teachers Responses on Prevalence of Mother Tongue Table 8: Teachers Responses on Whether Students Speak in Mother Tongue Table 9 : Students Responses on Influence of Mother Tongue on Performance Table 10: Students Responses On Perception of the Influence of Mother Tongue on Performance of English Table 11: Teachers Responses On Perception of the Influence of Mother Tongue on Performance of English Table 12: Students Responses on Measures Taken to Curb Use of Mother Tongue Table 13: Teachers Responses on Measures Taken to Curb Use of Mother Tongue Table 14: Students Responses on Challenges Brought About by Use of Mother Tongue Table 15: Responses of Students Strategies to Improve Performance in English Table 16: Teachers Responses on Strategies to Improve Performance in English xi

12 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Relationship Between Use of Mother Tongue and Performance of English Figure 2: Students Responses on Frequency of Teachers Switch Language Figure 3: Students Responses on the Frequency Students Switch Language Figure 4: Students Responses on the Frequency they use Mother Tongue...56 Figure 5: Students Responses on Students Language of Thought xii

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14 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1Background to the Problem Kenya is a linguistically heterogeneous and diverse country with many indigenous (mother tongues) and exogenous languages. Basically, Kenya has at least 42 indigenous languages. English is one of the exogenous languages. Other exogenous languages include: Arabic, French, German, Hindu, and Chinese while some of the indigenous languages include are Kalenjin, Dholuo, Kikuyu, Luhya, and Kisii among others. Use of English has a long history in Kenya. When Kenya attained self-rule in 1963, English was declared the official language (Republic of Kenya, 1964). It was to be used in all important government sectors including education. This policy re-emphasized what was already in place as a result of colonial language policy. At this particular point in time, the Ministry of Education took steps in line with language policy. In 1964, the Kenya Education Commission mounted a survey to establish the interests of the citizens with regard to language use. The findings revealed that most people wanted a trilingual approach to education (Ministry of Education, 2012). During this period, mother tongue was preferred for verbal communication especially in rural areas, while English and Kiswahili were preferred for education from lower primary to the university. Kiswahili was especially favored in education for purposes of national and regional unity. However, unlike English, mother tongue languages were not anchored into the school curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2012) Policy Documents that Influence Language in Kenyan Education System Various policy documents have influenced language policy in Kenyan education system. Among these documents is The Kenya Education Commission Report also referred to as Ominde 1

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15 Report. This report stipulated English as a medium of Instruction (Republic of Kenya, 1964). Another policy document is The Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (The Gachathi Report) in which mother tongue was the medium of instruction from grade 1-3 while English was the medium of instruction in grades 4-8 (Republic of Kenya, 1976). Likewise, in The Presidential Working Party on the Second University in Kenya (The Mackay Report), mother tongue was the medium of instruction in grade 1-3 and English was the medium of instruction in grades 4-8. Besides, Kiswahili was compulsory in grade 1-8 (Republic of Kenya, 1981). Another policy document that influenced language in Kenyan education was The Report of the Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond (Kamunge Report) where mother tongue was the medium of instruction from grade 1-3, while English was the medium of instruction from grade 4-8. Kiswahili was compulsory from grade 1-8 in this report (Republic of Kenya, 1988). In addition, Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training: Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the System of Kenya (Koech Report) is a policy document that has contributed to language development in Kenyan system of education. In this document, mother tongue was a medium of instruction from grade 1-3. The Koech Report advocated for English as medium of instruction from grade 4-8 and made Kiswahili compulsory from grade 1-8 (Republic of Kenya, 1999). Furthermore, The English National Syllabus 2006 indicates that mother tongue is the medium of instruction from grade 1-3 and English is the medium of instruction from grade 4-8 (Kenya Institute of Education, 2006). Essentially, these documents influencing language policy in Kenya give an account on how English as a subject has been considered over time in Kenya. The prominence given to English in the documents is obviously noted, making it 2

16 inevitable for teachers and learners to focus on English. The Constitution of Kenya (2010) clearly highlights the position of languages in chapter 2 article 7. In article 7 (1) it states that the national language of the Republic is Kiswahili while in article 7 (2) it states that the official languages of the Republic are Kiswahili and English. Furthermore, in article 7 (3) the constitution states that the State shall promote and protect the diversity of language of the people of Kenya and promote the development and use of indigenous languages, Kenyan sign language, Braille and other communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disability (Kenya Law Report, 2010, p. 14). Besides, schools have been known to come up with internal language policies that aim at helping the students to be proficient both in spoken and written English and improve their performance in English (Ministry of Education, 2012). These policies are implemented by teachers who believe that if students speak in English, their written English will improve and thus their performance in English. Apparently, teachers and some parents believe that early exposure of learners to English will enhance the learning process since English is the medium of instruction in Kenyan schools; thus speaking in English is encouraged while use of mother tongue is discouraged (Kimani, 2012) Performance of English Appendix 4 shows that the performance of English in day secondary schools in Gatundu District is dismal as compared to boarding secondary school. This should raise a lot of concerns to stakeholders because English is an important subject in terms of its utilitarian value, therefore there was need to consider whether use of mother tongue influences performance in English. Gatundu District is in Kiambu County, Central region of Kenya. The dominant mother tongue is Kikuyu. 3

17 In a study done on factors influencing students performance in English in KCSE in secondary schools in Meru North District, Kenya, Mwangi (2009) identified the problem that arises from having 100% of enrolment of students in their native district as is in the case of day district schools. This according to Mwangi (2009) contributes to poor performance in English as such students use their mother tongue during conversation. Mwangi (2009) recommends that parents should encourage their children to speak English while at home and school. Additionally, Mwangi (2009) cites mother tongue as one of the challenges that influences performance of English. Gacheche (2010) emphasizes the importance of English language acquisition as a stepping-stone for proficiency in other school subjects in the Kenyan education system and argues that use of mother tongue in secondary schools is a challenge in performance of English. In addition, Ouma (2010) researched on factors that affect performance of English in Gucha District, Kenya and found out that low proficiency and performance in English was associated to limited resources and students use of mother tongue. He discourages the use of mother tongue in schools. Moreover, it is a requirement for students to pass in English language before entering the university since English is considered in various clusters that are a requirement for entry to various courses (Kimani, 2012). For instance, for one to qualify to do a course in Law or Medicine at University of Nairobi, one has to attain a minimum of a B- in English (University of Nairobi, 2012). In both appendixes 3 and 4, schools have been given letters because of ethical considerations. Appendix 4 shows that the performance of English is low in public day secondary schools of Gatundu District while Appendix 3 shows a considerable high performance 4

18 of English in public boarding secondary schools of Gatundu District. The researcher therefore sought to find out whether use of mother tongue in day secondary schools of Gatundu contributes to the difference in the performance in English. At a workshop for English, organized by Oxford Publishers in collaboration with Ministry of Education, with the theme, Enhancing Performance of English, which was held in Gatundu at Gatundu Education Hall on 21 st September 2011, teachers of English raised concerns on the influence of mother tongue on written English and specifically, on the issue of direct translation. They resolved to discourage students not only from using mother tongue in school but also impress upon them to refrain from listening to FM radio stations that air their programs in mother tongue. At this workshop, the underpinning view was that use of mother tongue influences performance in English (Ministry of Education, 2012). Bartoo (2004) investigated on the acquisition of English syntax by Keiyo mother tongue speakers. In her study, she looked at the syntactic errors that result from First Language (L1) transfer in the process of acquiring English as a Second language (L2) by Keiyo speakers of English. She equally looked at the effects of the errors on performance of students. In her investigation, she found out that syntactic errors found in first language inhibit acquisition of English skills and thus performance of learners in English. This was important to this research since the researcher endeavored to analyze the influence of L1 (mother tongue) on L2 (English). 1.2 Statement of the Problem Secondary school level is important as it is the transitional stage, during which the youth of ages years are prepared to join higher education, training and thereafter the world of work. The value attached to this level of education is reflected in the attention it receives from the government, parents and the general public. According to Public Expenditure Review, in 5

19 2011, Kenya spent KSH146 Billion on education of which 50% went to primary education and 25% to secondary education (Ministry of Education, 2012). With this heavy investment at secondary level of education by the government, parents and the community, there is expectation of good results from individual students and schools in general (Kamano, 2011). Students achievement at this level is measured using the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examinations results. English is a core subject and is considered during the selection of courses in colleges and universities, so it needs to be given a lot of attention. There is a surge in expansion of secondary schools in the country (Kamano, 2011). Most of the emerging secondary schools are in the rural areas where learners prevalently use mother tongue at home and school; Gatundu district is not an exception. This prevalence of use of mother tongue especially in day secondary schools is an issue of concern since it is a challenge that influences the performance of English (Mwangi, 2009). Thus, there was need to analyze the influence of mother tongue on performance of learners in English in public day secondary schools of Gatundu District. The performance of English in the country has been declining and the results in Gatundu reflect this decline. For instance, English was the subject with the highest decline in 2011 KCSE, with a national mean score of 3.42 in 2011 as compared to 3.90 in 2010 (Ministry of Education, 2012). The highest possible mean is 12.0 which represent an A grade, while the lowest is 1.0, which represent an E. Other grades and corresponding mean scores include: A- 11, B+ 10, B 9, B- 8, C+ 7, C 6, C- 5, D+ 4, D 3, and D-2. Appendix 4 shows the performance of English in public day schools in Gatundu District, while Appendix 3 shows performance of English in public boarding secondary schools in Gatundu District. 6

20 The previous studies have only highlighted mother tongue as a factor affecting performance of English but they have not made an analysis of use of mother tongue and its influence on performance of English. Therefore, in this study the researcher endeavored to investigate the influence of mother tongue on performance of English. 1.3 Research Questions 1. What is the prevalence of the use of mother tongue in Gatundu public day Secondary Schools? 2. What is the perception of teachers and students on the influence of mother tongue on performance of English? 3. What are the measures taken to curb the use of mother tongue in schools? 4. What challenges does mother tongue bring about to students in the process of learning English? 5. What strategies should be used to improve the performance of English? 1.4 Significance of the Study This study provides useful information to all education stakeholders who include the government, Kenya National Examination Council, Kenya Institute of Education, teachers, students, parents and community at large. The information about the influence of use of mother tongue in secondary schools will not only be useful in Gatundu District but also in Kenya at large. Specifically, the school administration will be able to garner information that will be helpful in their endeavor to address school s language policy issues in terms of focus on use of mother tongue in school and how it influences performance in English and by extension 7

21 academic performance. Consequently, school principals can utilize the information, findings and recommendations to look for ways and means of coming up with informed language polices. The findings also benefit teachers by providing them with information to re-examine their personal and professional practices in terms of use of language, with an aim of improving students performance in English. Parents or guardians, on the other hand, can use the research recommendations to help them to contribute positively to their children performance in English. Students also benefit from the findings by identifying personal characteristics in terms of their interaction patterns with colleagues and thus pick the right practices that can enhance their performance in English. Finally, the research contributes to the existing knowledge on the use of mother tongue and how it influences performance of English. It also helps future researchers in identifying priority areas in which to carry out more research in terms of use of language in the context of secondary schools. The findings may also serve as useful feedback to language policy makers, curriculum developers and implementers. 1.5 Scope and Delimitation of the Study The study focused on how use of mother tongue by teachers and students in school influences performance of English in public day secondary schools in Gatundu District. The study was delimited to public day secondary school students and teachers in Gatundu District of Kiambu County. Teachers of English were selected since they were presumed to be the teachers with first hand teaching experience in English and therefore could adequately represent other teachers and school principals views. Therefore the study was hopefully a representative of other schools in similar contexts. In addition, the study was also delimited in terms of the time available. It was not 8

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22 practical for the researcher to visit all the schools in the district and at the same time carry a quality research. Gatundu District was chosen because its public day secondary schools registered poor performance in English in KCSE examination as Appendix 4 illustrates. Furthermore, to the best of the researcher s knowledge, no other similar study has ever been conducted in the District. In addition, the study focused on English performance only, leaving out all other subjects at secondary school level. 1.6 Theoretical Framework This study was based on Acculturation Theory. This is an environmental-oriented theory proposed by John Schumann in It was used in 1980 in the field of Linguistics, precisely, Second Language Acquisition. It states that Second Language Acquisition is the result of acculturation, which he defines as the social and psychological integration of the learner with the target language (TL) group (Schumann, 1978, p. 29). The major claim of the theory is that acculturation, which is a cluster of social-psychological factors, is the major cause of Second Language Acquisition (Schumann, 1990). Schumann states that any learner can be placed along a continuum ranging from social-psychological distance to social-psychological proximity with the speakers of the target language. The degree of language acquisition, then, would correlate with the degree of the learner s proximity to the target group. Thus, the acculturation theory argues that learners will be successful in Second Language Acquisition if there are fewer social and psychological distances between them and the speakers of the second language. Some of the factors that account for the acquisition of second language according to the theory include: motivation and attitude of the learner, limited integration of cultural groups and how tight-knit the group is. This theory applied to this study because this study endeavored to find out how use of a 9

23 language in a social context influences second language acquisition. The theory also indicates that learners will be successful in Second Language Acquisition if there are fewer social and psychological distances between them and the speakers of the second language. This study sought to establish the influence of use of mother tongue (which is a social factor) and the attitude towards use of mother tongue (a psychological factor) and how the distance created by use of mother tongue (Kikuyu) influences acquisition and thus performance in second language (English). Acculturation theory s strength lies in the fact that it considers motivation to be instrumental and integrative. The motive for learning second language is important, however, the theory assumes that there will always be a group which is familiar with the second language; this is not always the case. 1.7 Conceptual Framework In this research, the relationship between the use of mother tongue and acquisition of English skills of writing, speaking and reading, hence performance of English was considered. The independent variable was use of mother tongue while performance of English was the dependent variable. Precisely, the output was measured in terms of performance in English. 10

24 Figure 1: Relationship Between Use of Mother Tongue and Performance of English Reading in English Comprehension Use of Mother Tongue Code Switching Speaking in English Pronunciation Writing in English Sentence construction Essay writing Performance in English Basically, Figure 1 shows that the study highlights how mother tongue influences the acquisition of skills in English and thus performance of English. The conceptual framework indicates that the input of mother tongue influences the acquisition of reading skills through comprehension of texts, writing skills through sentence construction and essay writing, and speaking skills through pronunciation. The influence of mother tongue on these skills eventually influences the performance of English. 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms Code-Switching: Code switching is when a teacher or student speaks in English for a while and then switches to mother tongue for a while and back to English during the teaching-learning process. Code-mixing: Code mixing is when a teacher or student mix languages during their conversation. Words from the two languages are mixed during conversation. English Teacher: An individual who teaches, instructs and facilitates the learning of English language. 11

25 Exogenous Language: A language that is foreign to people of a certain country. First Language: The first language an individual acquires at an early age. Mother Tongue Education: Mother tongue education is the education which uses a person s mother tongue as its medium of instruction. Mother Tongue: Mother tongue is a language which a person acquires in early years and which normally becomes their instrument of thought. In this paper, I am going to consider mother tongue as the language of the catchment area since in the context under study, the vernacular used is also the mother tongue. Second Language: A language that an individual learns or acquires after acquiring the first language. Target Language: A language that is aimed or targeted to be learned. Vernacular: Vernacular is the language a child is expected to learn as a result of social interaction or the language of the catchment area. 12

26 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter reviews international, regional and local literature. It discusses arguments in support of use of mother tongue and those against use of mother tongue. It further discusses literature on the effect of mother tongue (first language) on English (second language) and thus performance of English. In addition, the issue of code switching and code mixing in classroom is discussed. Perception of how mother tongue influences performance of English and the concept of contrastive analysis are equally discussed. The literature is critiqued and gaps of knowledge identified. Finally, a summary of the reviewed literature is done. 2.2 Global Perspectives on First Language Influence on Second Language Various scholars have discussed the concept of first language influence on second language. Literature herein has brought out various issues regarding the influence of first language on second language discussed from a global point of view. This literature helped the researcher to be grounded with information that would assist him in interpreting the findings. How First Language Affects Second Language: Transfer or Interference The term transfer in language learning is defined by Odlin (1989) as the influence resulting from similarities and differences between the target language and any other language that has been previously acquired (p. 27). Transfer is a psychological term that is used to describe a situation where one learned event influences the learning of a subsequent learning event. The influence in this case has two facets; commonly known as interference or negative transfer and positive transfer. Positive transfer or facilitation entails transfer of skill or part of the native language which facilitates the learning of the target language. On the other hand, 13

27 negative command of transfer or interference is transfer of a skill which impedes the learning or has negative influence on the command of a skill in the target language. This study endeavors to find out whether use of mother tongue in the context under study influences (interferes or transfers) acquisition of skills in English and thus performance of English in Gatundu. According to (Wardhaugh, 1970) transfer is a tool used to account for or explain the errors which actually occur. He further argues that transfer is the basis for predicting which patterns in second language (L2) will be learnt more readily and which will prove more troublesome. The assumptions held under this point of view are: the chance of second language learning problems occurring will increase proportionally to the linguistic differences between first language (L1) and L2- linguistic differences give rise to negative transfer or interference; the second assumption is that the chance of L2 learning problems occurring decreases proportionally to the absence of linguistic differences between L1 and L2- absence of linguistic differences give rise to positive transfer or facilitation. Thus this is important to this study because the researcher endeavored to find out whether the difference in mother tongue influences the performance in English. Corder (1981) observes that when people are learning a second language, they already have a first language (L1). He also realized that the rules they have learned and understood in first language are used in second language (L2). As a result people form habits of using the rules of first language in the second language and therefore make errors. These findings are important to this study because the researcher need to figure out the influence of mother tongue (first language) on acquisition of English (second language) skills and thus performance of English. Researches that have been done in the area of native language show there is interference of native language on the target language. Various scholars have addressed the issue of 14

28 interference: Dulay and Burt (1982) consider interference as the automatic transfer, due to habit, of the surface structure of the first language onto the surface of the target language. Lott (1983) defines interference as 'errors in the learner s use of the foreign language that can be traced back to the mother tongue (p. 256). Ellis (2001) refers to interference as transfer which he says is 'the influence that the learner s L1 exerts over the acquisition of an L2 (p. 51). He argues that transfer is governed by learners perceptions about what is transferable in L2 learning. According to Ellis (2001) in learning a target language, learners construct their own interim rules with the use of their L1 knowledge, but only when they believe it will help them in the learning task or when they have become sufficiently proficient in the L2 for transfer to be possible. This study sought to find out the influence of mother tongue (L1) on acquisition of English (L2) thus performance. Perception of teachers and students on the influence of mother tongue on English were sought in terms of whether they thought mother tongue influenced the performance of English. According to Corder (1981) errors are deviations from correct usage because a learner does not know the relevant language rule yet. Furthermore, a distinction between mistake and error is made. Both McLaughlin (1990) and Lott (1983) reveal a criterion that helps us to do so: it is the self-correctability criterion. A mistake can be self-corrected, but an error cannot. Errors are systematic, that is, likely to occur repeatedly and not recognized by the learner. Hence, only the teacher or researcher would locate them, the learner would not (McLaughlin, 1990). This is important for this study since it investigated the influence of mother tongue on written English. Thus, it essentially endeavored to find out whether the transfers or errors emanating from using mother tongue influenced the performance of English. It was noted that teachers identified direct translation as an error that went unnoticed by the learners. 15

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29 McLaughlin (1990) notes that there is an influence between the first and second languages because acquiring one s first language gives one a certain routine or experience, strategies and metacognitive skills, which can be generalized to subsequent languages, but there are also language-specific constraints in L2 perception and comprehension. Thus this study strived to find out the extent to which mother tongue influence the performance of English. The study wanted to find out the extent in terms of perceptions from teachers and students, to which the first language affects the second language. Pro Mother Tongue Use Advocacy There is a divergent view by scholars about use of mother tongue in education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) report of 1953 articulated the significance of using mother tongue as language of instruction in early schooling. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1953) observes: It is axiomatic that the best medium for teaching a child is his [her] mother tongue. Psychologically, it is the system of meaningful signs that in his [her] mind works automatically for the expression and understanding. Sociologically, it is a means of identification among members of the community to which he [she] learns more quickly through it than through an unfamiliar linguistic medium. (p. 11). According to the observation above learning using mother tongue hastens the process of learning since the learners are considered to be familiar with the language of instruction. However, in the context under study, English is the medium of instruction; consequently mother tongue has no place in the teaching-learning process. Therefore, does mother tongue have an influence in the performance of English when it is used in the context under study? 16

30 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1968) maintain that literacy acquisition and second language proficiency depend on well-developed first language proficiency; that is, proficiency in mother tongues. However, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1968) cautions that a mother tongue need necessarily not be the language which a child s parents use or need it be the first language a child speaks. Mother tongue is the language, which a person acquires in early years and which becomes his or her natural instrument of thought and communication (UNESCO, 1953). However, mother tongue in most cases will be the language spoken by the parents because the parents are normally the first people to be in contact with the child and hence their language. In addition, the question of whether proficiency in mother tongue leads to proficiency in acquisition of the second language is not well explained, in that, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1953) does not take into consideration the use of the second language as the medium of instruction and how the previous and current use of the mother tongue affect later performance in English. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 1968) advocate for the use of mother tongue on psychological, sociological and educational grounds. Mother tongue education is supported by educationists due to its applicability to the cognitive development of a child. Learners have difficulties in developing cognitive skills when taught through the medium of a second language especially if it is not related to the learners mother tongue (McNab, 1989). UNESCO advances the point of view that pupil s mother tongue is the best for expressional and understanding of concepts. This is compared to exogenous languages like English, which the pupil has to learn the subject before being instructed in the language. Educationists support the view that learners best learn from simple to complex, known to 17

31 unknown. The known language that a child encounters in his/her life is mother tongue. Cummings (1964) thus proclaims succinctly: Elementary schooling in a language other than the child s mother tongue represents a serious departure from the fundamental educational rule that one should move from known to unknown. Only the mother tongue with its links to the child s environment and experiences can introduce the child to the world of abstract experiences and high culture (p. 180). Essentially, the above argument shows that use of mother tongue is favorable for learners especially at the elementary level. It implies that when English is used at elementary level, it becomes a challenge in terms of making sense out of the abstract ideas. Therefore, I am of the opinion that for sustainability of consistency in thought, learners should be introduced to English at a tender age though this contradicts the proponents of those who believe in the use of mother tongue. Early introduction to English will remove interference/barrier brought about by mother tongue leading to enhanced performance in English. Language Use in Diverse Contexts According to Asher (1986) it is important to check how students use language both written and spoken to make sense of their own lives and what they learn in school. This can therefore insinuate that teachers need to check out the kind of language student s use in school. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2006) argue that the best medium to teach a child is through their mother tongue. However it is not possible to teach in schools (especially secondary schools) using mother tongue in Kenyan context because of the many mother tongues available. A misconception lies in the belief that many bilingual students appear to experience 18

32 restricted educational success, with bilingualism the attribute of liability (Schumann, 1990). This statement provides the substance of my study; to what extent does bilingual students who use mother tongue in an educational context that emphasize the use English as the language of instruction perform well in English? Is use of mother tongue a liability or an asset? The answer to this question provides us with the opportunity to evaluate the influence of mother tongue on performance of English; whether positive or negative; transfer or interference. Therefore, this puts us in a situation that raises the query as to what is the influence of use of mother tongue or first language on academic performance. Stubbs (1996) claims that reading problems in second language emanate from inadequate knowledge in second language since the reader may lack adequate proficiency to pick cues that will enable him to make correct predictions or guesses. It is equally argued that individuals proficient in first language will also be proficient in second language (Stubbs, 1996). This argument tends to simplify the proficiency in mother tongue and assume that this proficiency will automatically lead to proficiency in the second language. The argument does not consider the effort made by individuals in acquiring the second language through reading, writing, listening and speaking. It does not consider orthographic and phonological processing which require sets of knowledge and strategies. In as much as the researcher has tried to show a correlation between proficiency between first and second language, there is a gap that is left in terms of how direct translation from mother tongue to second language influences communication. Does this influence the performance of students in English? Use of mother tongue can affect both reading and writing and thus performance of English since the more the students dialect departs from the Standard English, the great the students show problems in learning in printed words both in reading and writing (Asher, 1986). 19

33 It is therefore important for teachers to know as much as they can from the students dialect for them to optimally teach them. Mother tongue interference retards the progress for reading, speaking and writing since patterns of mother tongue do not correspond with those of English. This study endeavored to find out whether indeed use of mother tongue in the context under study influenced the performance of English in terms of the pronunciation and when students are writing in English. According to Cummins (2000) students need to have control of formal English in order to do well in English exams. They also argue that language develop through authentic language use. This is a clear indication that, if students frequently use mother tongue, their written English will be greatly influenced. In addition, students need more than social language skills to be successful in school, they need academic language skills which involve using both receptive and productive language, thinking and reasoning in all content area. According to Cummins (2000) schools have a responsibility to provide a wide range of experiences that will facilitate language development for social interaction, performing highly in English as well as language for academic purposes (p.29). This explains why schools have mechanisms to curb mother tongue speaking. In this study, the researcher wanted to find out some of the mechanisms that were put in place by schools to curb the use of mother tongues and whether these mechanisms worked. Direct Translation as a Product of First Language Corder (1981) investigated the phenomenon and questions the term transfer. He suggests that mother tongue influence as a neutral and broader term to refer to what has most commonly been called transfer. Corder says that since most studies of error were made on the basis of the performance of learners in English in formal situations where it appears that errors related to mother tongue are more frequent, it was natural that an explanation of the phenomenon was of 20

34 considerable concern to a linguist. In a way Corder (1981) acknowledges errors in second language are a result of mother tongue. Thus this investigation aimed to find out whether indeed this was true; does mother tongue influence the performance of English in the context under study? Corder (1981) shows that when a second language learner is under pressure, the learner will borrow or substitute words from the mother tongue (p. 26). He further says that borrowing occurs because communication is the learner's primary goal, rather than obedience to grammar rules. Borrowers retrieve words and structures from mother tongue to help their developing sense of the second language (Corder, 1981). In both cases, however, being understood is the primary goal. According to Cummins (2000) there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful Language in interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act (p. 68). The 'learned system' or 'learning' is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge about the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. This is important to this study since the researcher wants to know whether the unconscious system learnt by learners in their mother tongue influences their construction in the conscious system through learning English in school. Language and Gender According to Lado (1995) men and women use language in different way during their conversations. In the studies of language and gender Lado (1995) identified dominance in speech as a trait manifested by female. Women talk too much and speak in private contexts while men 21

35 speak in public, negotiate status or avoid failure and speak one at a time. Unlike men, women are more likely to initiate conversation than men, but less likely to make the conversation succeed. This affects females rate of learning and acquiring a language (Lado, 1995). This study considered the genders due to their differences as a result of strength or weakness in dominance in speech. Communication styles are always a product of context, and as such, gender differences tend to be most pronounced in single-gender groups (Corder, 1981). One explanation for this is that people accommodate their language towards the style of the person they are interacting with. Therefore, in a mixed-gender group, for instance a mixed secondary school, gender differences tend to be less pronounced. A similarly important observation is that this accommodation is usually towards the language style, not the gender of the person (Corder, 1981). That is, a polite and empathic male will tend to be accommodated to on the basis of their being polite and empathic, rather than their being male. This study ensured that there was an even representation of genders so that both the attributes of male and female were captured. The Concept of Contrastive Analysis Lado (1995) is of the view that grammatical structure opens the way to a comparison of the grammatical structure of the foreign language with that of the native language to discover the problems of the students in learning the foreign language. It is from this premise that Lado (1995) argues that the result of such a comparison tells teachers what they should test and what they should not test. Thus comparison of grammatical structures is important in this research since the researcher endeavors to analyze the influence of mother tongue on performance of English. The challenge of direct translation is identified as result of comparing the grammatical disposition of mother tongue and English. In addition, Lado (1995) argues that the teacher who 22

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FAQs

What are the impact of mother tongue on students performance in English language? ›

The study found out that use of mother tongue had a negative influence in performance of English in public day secondary schools of Gatundu. It emerged from the study that use of mother tongue influences the way students write and pronounce in English, hence negatively influencing the performance of English in KCSE.

What is influence of mother tongue in the teaching/learning process? ›

Using mother tongue helps a child develop their critical thinking and literacy skills. Research shows that children learning in mother tongue adopt a better understanding of the curriculum. Skills learnt in mother tongue do not have to be re-taught when when the child transfers to a second language.

What is the impact of mother tongue? ›

Benefits of mother tongue and multilingual education

Children learn better and faster in a language they can understand (preventing delays in learning) They enjoy school more, they feel more at home. Pupils tend to show increased self-esteem.

What are the negative influences of mother tongue in the learning of English? ›

The majority of high school students are still in the early stages of learning English, there are many disadvantages such as the environment of English learning is poor, limited vocabulary, lack of knowledge and ability to use English, so is vulnerable to mother tongue.

What is the advantage and disadvantage of mother tongue in teaching learning? ›

The use of mother tongue, makes the friendly atmosphere in foreign language classes. The use of mother tongue decreases learners' disappointment within they are learning a foreign language. As a teacher it is important that the extreme use of the mother tongue should be avoided.

Is there a significant relationship between the first language and the pronunciation performance? ›

There is no significant relationship between the level of English Language proficiency possessed and Linguistics students' performance in pronunciation.

Do you think mother tongue Influence can have an advantage? ›

Mother tongue is the language that a child gets to hear after birth and helps give a definite shape to our feelings and thoughts. Learning in the mother tongue is also crucial for improving other critical thinking skills, second language learning, and literacy skills.

Does mother tongue improve the learning of pupils? ›

There is a significant higher achievement of the pupils in literacy and numerical skills when taught using the mother tongue as medium of instruction compared to those pupils who are taught in conventional strategy as medium of instruction.

How does mother tongue language interfere in learning a new language? ›

The questionnaire shows that mother tongue interferes with second language learning in some way. In English language, the most challenging part was Grammar, while the most difficult and influenced skills was Speaking. In addition, participants had difficulty with speaking without any preparation.

What is the use and interference of mother tongue in the teaching of English pronunciation? ›

The mother tongue like-accent is able to affect the ability to pronounce foreign language words. The Batak Toba-neses are not able to pronounce a few English vowel sounds. It is caused by the difference of phonological system.

What is the conclusion of mother tongue? ›

Many studies show that mother tongue is an education in itself and brings quality learning. The language carries with it a way of thinking, a way of doing and a way of feeling that cannot be assimilated in another language.

What are the challenges presented in using mother tongue education? ›

Some problems encountered by the teachers in implementing mother tongue - based instruction include absence of books written in mother tongue, lack of vocabulary, and lack of teacher-training. Nevertheless, the study indicated that major attention and effort are still necessary to be given to the approach.

What are the disadvantages of using mother tongue as medium of instruction? ›

Disadvantages of Using the Mother Tongue in the ESL Classroom. Translation could lead to the development of an excessive dependency on the students' mother tongue (Harbord, 1992) by both teachers and students.

How and why can a student's pronunciation affect the quality of his/her communication? ›

Pronunciation can affect the quality of a student's communication in many ways. For one, mispronouncing words can alter the meaning of what is being and eventually lead to misunderstanding. It is therefore important for students to understand that correct pronunciation is the key to effective communication.

How does language influence student learning? ›

Through language, children make sense of experiences and the world around them. In fact, language is the foundation for most learning—whether it is factual knowledge, social skills, moral development, or physical achievement.

How does the learners home language influence the teaching of an additional language? ›

When learners use their home language to learn another language, their understanding and performance is likely to improve. Being able to move between two languages lessens the cognitive load (the brain having to do too many tasks at once) and lets learners explain what they know and can do.

What is the influence of the semantic aspects of mother tongue on learning English as a foreign language? ›

Based on the findings the study recommends that: Students should not relay on their mother tongue very much as this has a negative effect on their language learning development, instead they should learn the semantic rules in both mother tongue and foreign language.

How mother tongue is considered as the foundation of content? ›

Mother tongue makes it easier for children to pick up and learn other languages. Mother tongue develops a child's personal, social and cultural identity. Using mother tongue helps a child develop their critical thinking and literacy skills.

What is the difference between positive and negative language transfer? ›

Negative transfer (or interference) occurs when differences between the two languages' structures lead to systematic errors in the learning of the second language or to fossilization. Positive transfer occurs when areas of similarity between the two languages facilitate learning.

What are the disadvantages of MTB MLE? ›

The disadvantages are all linked to the scarcity of instructional materials which hinder the enhancement of the reading, listening, speaking and writing skills of the learners. Added to these is the lack of training to prospective teachers to teach mother tongue.

What is the influence of the semantic aspects of mother tongue on learning English as a foreign language? ›

Based on the findings the study recommends that: Students should not relay on their mother tongue very much as this has a negative effect on their language learning development, instead they should learn the semantic rules in both mother tongue and foreign language.

Impact Of Mother Tongue On Students’ Performance In English Language with abstract, chapters 1-5, references and questionnaire

Okoro (2000) has stated that the problem of poor level of achievement of primary school.. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school’ irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, They further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. (ii) Are there adequate teaching materials for teachers to teach the students?. This study would provide a thresholds for proper understanding of the impacts of mother tongue on students’ performance in English Language.. Email: [email protected] Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

THE IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE. download your complete project topics and materials...PDF

This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may -be due to poor foundation in English Language at the primary school level.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may be due to poor foundation in English language at the primary school level.. Okoro (2000) has stated that the problem of poor level of achievement of primary school.. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school’ irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, They further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. (ii) Are there adequate teaching materials for teachers to teach the students?. This study would provide a thresholds for proper understanding of the impacts of mother tongue on students’ performance in English Language.. Email: [email protected] Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

The study examine the impact of mother tongue on students performance in english language, The importance of English language acquisition as a stepping

This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may -be due to poor foundation in English Language at the primary school level.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may be due to poor foundation in English language at the primary school level.. Okoro (2000) has stated that the problem of poor level of achievement of primary school.. Kolawole (2002) also confirmed that the performance of the primary school pupils in English language was very poor.. The use of tribal language in the lower classes of the primary school; Some pupils do not understand the grammar because their teachers themselves do not know it; and In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school’ irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, They further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. The study which employed a large sample of 5300 pupils showed that the achievement of girls in English language was significantly higher than that of boys both in terms of mean curriculum coverage and examination learning outcomes.. To find out the level at which mother tongue can interfere in the learning of English language in secondary school.. For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;. H 0 : mother tongue do not interfere in the learning of English language in secondary school. H 1 : mother tongue interfere in the learning of English language in secondary school. It will also serve as a rich source of data for consultation by teachers and students on how to improve the performance of students in English Language.. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.

EFFECTS OF MOTHER TONGUE INTERFERENCE IN THE STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS,BIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS/MATERIALS

The topic of the study is the effects of mother tongue in the study of English language in secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.. Title Page. Approval Page. Certification. Dedication. Acknowledgement. Table Of Contents. Abstract Chapter One:. 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background Of The Study. 1.2 Statement Of The Problem. 1.3 Significance Of The Study. 1.4 Purpose Of The Study. 1.5 Research Question. 1.6 Hypothesis. 1.7 Scope Of The Study. 1.8 Definition Of Terms Chapter Two:. 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Brief History Of The Development, Teaching And Learning Of The English Language In Nigeria. 2.2 The Medium Of Communication. 2.3 Interference Of Second Language. 2.4 Language Uses In Nigeria Chapter Three:. 3.0 Researcher Methods 3.1 Research Design. 3.2 Area Of Study. 3.3 Population Of The Study. 3.4 Instrument For Data Collection. 3.5 Validation Of Instrument. 3.6 Reliability Of The Instrument. 3.7 Data Collection. 3.8 Data Analysis. Significance of the Study:. This study will help to expose the numerous factors that influence the interference of the study of English language by the mother tongue or native languages.. Since English language has been used as a second official and some times even as a foreign language in Nigeria for along time and give the inescapable behaviour of language in contact, it is normal to expect it to have factors which can identify it as bonafide subject, dialect, variely or idiom of world English.. English is now the term Nigerian English is used to refer to the subject of English spoken or written by Nigerians, it is commonly known that the features of Nigerians English language, like those of other new English, are essentially inherent particularly at the early stages of learning by the mother tongue features.. Ho2 English language teachers makes use of correct method of teaching in teaching and learning of English language.. Chapter two of this Effects Of Mother Tongue Interference In The Study Of English Language In Secondary Schools” research work is available.. Chapter Two of “Effects Of Mother Tongue Interference In The Study Of English Language In Secondary Schools Contains: Literature Review, Brief History Of The Development, Teaching And Learning Of The English Language In Nigeria, The Medium Of Communication, Interference Of Second Language and Language Uses In Nigeria .. Chapter Three of “Effects Of Mother Tongue Interference In The Study Of English Language In Secondary Schools Contains: Researcher Methods, Research Design, Area Of Study, Population Of The Study, Instrument For Data Collection, Validation Of Instrument, Reliability Of The Instrument, Data Collection and Data Analysis .

THE IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ...

The importance of English language as a school subject derives mainly from its utilitarian value to the larger Nigerian society, English is the officia1 language of administration and commerce, It is major language of science.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may -be due to poor foundation in English Language at the primary school level.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may be due to poor foundation in English language at the primary school level.. Perhaps the way English language is taught in schools and colleges may be blamed for some of the observed lapses in English language achievement and skills of learners.. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school' irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, They further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. He felt that to use English language at that level will lead to the children having a mental translation of a1l concepts presented in English language to their mother tongue in order to gain sufficient meaning of the concepts presented.. It was in recognition of the importance and contributions of mother tongue to education that made the, Federal Ministry of Education in Collaboration with other educational statutory agencies include in the National Policy on Education published in 1977, revised in 1981, the use of mother tongue as a medium of educating pupils at the pre-primary and primary level throughout the country.. The mother tongue.is the child's environment and is the natural basis on which verbal skills can be built, children learn through communicating in a language, which they understood, hence the need for this study: Impact of mother tongue on students’ performance In English Language.

THE IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE.This study has thrown an insight into the impact of mother tongue

The importance of English language as a school subject derives mainly from its utilitarian value to the larger Nigerian society, English is the officia1 language of administration and commerce, It is major language of science.. Above all, Salami (2002) had emphasized the importance of tile USC of English language in improving communication among, the various ethnic groups in, Nigeria, He further highlighted the need for improving the quality of spoken and written English .language among school children.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may -be due to poor foundation in English Language at the primary school level.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may be due to poor foundation in English language at the primary school level.. Perhaps the way English language is taught in schools and colleges may be blamed for some of the observed lapses in English language achievement and skills of learners.. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school’ irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, They further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. He felt that to use English language at that level will lead to the children having a mental translation of a1l concepts presented in English language to their mother tongue in order to gain sufficient meaning of the concepts presented.. It was in recognition of the importance and contributions of mother tongue to education that made the, Federal Ministry of Education in Collaboration with other educational statutory agencies include in the National Policy on Education published in 1977, revised in 1981, the use of mother tongue as a medium of educating pupils at the pre-primary and primary level throughout the country.. The positive results of the experiment in Mother Tongue Medium in Yoruba carried out at the then University of Ife empirically demonstrated the great advantages, of mother tongue in primary education for scholastic attainment (Bamgbose, 1984) and even in the successful mastery of English as a second language.. At this juncture, it is very imperative to look at whether mother tongue has bearing on the English language stage among the secondary school students.. The study is designed to examine the influence of mother tongue on Students performance in English language in Junior School CertificateExamination.. The study investigated if mother tongue is solely the cause of the student’s woeful performance in English Language, in Junior School certificate Examination or if there are other complementing factors.. The mother tongue.is the child’s environment and is the natural basis on which verbal skills can be built, children learn through communicating in a language, which they understood, hence the need for this study: Impact of mother tongue on students’ performance In English Language.

IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ABSTRACT This study has thrown an insight into the impact of mother tongue in the speaking skills of English language. The impact: of

The importance of English language as a school subject derives mainly from its utilitarian value to the larger Nigerian society, English is the officia1 language of administration and commerce, It is major language of science.. Perhaps the way English language is taught in schools and colleges may be blamed for some of the observed lapses in English language achievement and skills of learners.. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. The mother tongue.is the child's environment and is the natural basis on which verbal skills can be built, children learn through communicating in a language, which they understood, hence the need for this study: Impact of mother tongue on students’ performance In English Language.

1.0   INTRODUCTION  1.1        Background of the study 1.2        Statement of problem 1.3        Objective of the study 1.4        Research Hypotheses 1.5        Significance of the study 1.6        Scope and limitation of the study 1.7       Definition of terms 1.8       Organization of the study     CHAPETR TWO 2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW   CHAPETR THREE 3.0        Research methodology 3.1    sources of data collection 3.3        Population of the study […]

This study investigates the effect of mother tongue on English language in some selected secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government.. English language is not an indigenous language to Nigeria, due to the fact, that Nigerians already have their own spoken language (mother tongue).. Every Nigeria learning English language is usually faced with a complex language situation in his process language development.. This research is designed to find and analyze the influence of mother tongue on the learning of English Language as a foreign language it is therefore an attempt to bring together in an accessible from where the mother tongue can give the needed wrap to English used by Nigerian’s, particularly those students in Ozolua Model Secondary School, Iguobazuwa.. To ascertain how mother tongue affect English language tongue To ascertain sufficient diversified register of English vocabulary in various field of human endeavour which will enhance the overall quality of communicative competence of the learning second language.. H 0 : mother tongue does not affect English language tongue.. H 1 : mother tongue affects English language tongue. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.. Second language: Foreign language, any language other than the native language or mother tongue.. Transfer: The process or result of carrying over speech habit from one language to another e.g. language teaching, the patterns of the mother tongue or when translating lexical items may be borrowed from the native language.. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.

ABSTRACT This study investigates the effect of mother tongue on English language in some selected secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government. The effect of mother tongue of the study includes students in doc, pdf

Type:Project Chapters:5 Pages:40 Methodology:simple percentage Reference:YES Format:Microsoft Word. Download this Project Materials. (Education Project Topics & Materials) THE EFFECT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE, A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENTABSTRACT This study investigates the effect of mother tongue on English language in some selected secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government.. The effect of mother tongue of the study includes students in some secondary schools in Ovia North East.. Besides having to master his own language and other indigenous language, he needs to have a good command of English as indispensable tool in his daily life in a changing world.. Language is our greatest invention, without it, trade, government, family life.. The human being is characterized by the ability to communicate with his fellow human being, this chief characteristics is what distinguished the human from animals.. Any normal human being with the normal human facilities possesses this type of sensory stimulation is being used.STATEMENT OF PROBLEM This research is designed to find and analyze the influence of mother tongue on the learning of English Language as a foreign language it is therefore an attempt to bring together in an accessible from where the mother tongue can give the needed wrap to English used by Nigerian’s, particularly those students in Ozolua Model Secondary School, Iguobazuwa.. Psychologically; the proper development of the child is closely boring with the continued use of the language he has spoken from birth, the language of his parents, brothers and sisters, friends and people he is use to.. It is a paramount fact that a child education should begin with his mother tongue since it is the language of his culture, of all the elements that characterize a linguistic group and distinguishes them from other group’s whether in art, music, dance, attitude and beliefs, customs, festivals, behaviour etc.. It is solely based on the influence of mother tongue on the learning of English as a foreign language and its impact on the rural people, possibleRESEARCH QUESTIONS The research questions would focus on the following;Does the environment of the child affect the performance of pupils in English language?Does the economic status of the parents of the child affect the performance of pupils in English language?Does mother tongue affect the performance of a child in English language?Is there any relationship between the occupation of parents and the performance of their children in English language?Does the health of the child affect the performance of pupils in English language?DEFINITION OF TERMSMother tongue: Native, language, the first which is normally acquired by human being in early childhood through interaction with other member of his own native speakers.. This can also be called primary language, its one’s first language of interaction.Second language: Foreign language, any language other than the native language or mother tongue.. The interference can be noticed in features of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary when a person is learning to master the pattern of second language.Transfer: The process or result of carrying over speech habit from one language to another e.g. language teaching, the patterns of the mother tongue or when translating lexical items may be borrowed from the native language.. Negative features that are not available in the mother tongue are to features that are present in the second language.. THE EFFECT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE, A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OVIA NORTH EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT

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The topic of the study is the effects of mother tongue in the study of English language in secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.. That most of the English language teachers are not qualified that students are hardly buy books in English language.. Language is a creation which every human being is endowed with or blessed; a unique gift of language is used naturally as one tool of expression consisting of different sub skills.The English language is the official and native language of Britain, Ireland, North America, Australia, America and most of the British colonies, (for the colonies, it is regarded as the official language rather than native).. of a given people.The English language beings the national official language for the British colonies of which Nigeria is among makes it our second language.. It is as a result of the negative effects which the mother tongue had caused the study of English language on the educational structures of the attempt to determine the effect of the use of mother tongue on the teaching and learning process in secondary schools.Statement of the Problem.Before the advent of British traders, missionaries and colonialists, indigenous Nigerian language defined every aspect of the speech community from its religious, cultural, political, Economics, social to whatever else that can be through of the language functioned effectively to deal with every thing relating to the day existence of the people.. The arrival of the British, concomitant with the English language provided a language contact situation with an attempt to a language shift in the population.New sets of ideas, concepts and values were introduced to the system where indigenous local language had previously been self-sufficient, rendering them inadequate to deal with the new concepts introduced by the British, particularly in the areas of formal education, Western law etc.. the result was the initial subtle and later blatant intrusion & influence of English language on domains that were the exclusive preserve of indigenous language.Now, the English language is generally an accepted language which was introduced into Nigeria through colonialism and missionary activities is now spoken, thought and learned in Nigeria.Where English language sentence are made, they are characteristically uttered with variation in pitch often referred to as intonation.. The study intended to identify the effect of mother tongue in the study of English language in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.Significance of the Study:This study will help to expose the numerous factors that influence the interference of the study of English language by the mother tongue or native languages.. It will also identify the effects of this interference on other study area that are based on the use of the English language as the basic communication.This study will enable teachers to identify their problems in English language.. It will also enable the teachers to make more research on the use of English language.Since English language has been used as a second official and some times even as a foreign language in Nigeria for along time and give the inescapable behaviour of language in contact, it is normal to expect it to have factors which can identify it as bonafide subject, dialect, variely or idiom of world English.. English is now the term Nigerian English is used to refer to the subject of English spoken or written by Nigerians, it is commonly known that the features of Nigerians English language, like those of other new English, are essentially inherent particularly at the early stages of learning by the mother tongue features.. HypothesisHo Mother tongue interfers in the learning of English language.Hi Mother tongue dose not interfers in the learning of English language.Ho2 English language teachers makes use of correct method of teaching in teaching and learning of English language.Ho2 English language teacher do not make use of correct teaching method.. This research is the effect of mother tongue interference in study of English language among secondary school students in Enugu North Local Government Area.It is based on the available result gotten from continuous assessment and summative examinations of schools such as West Africa Examination Council, the national examination council and examination development centre for senior school certificate examination all in English Language.Definition of Terms:It is imperative to properly defined the terms that make the heading of the research topic under study.

IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IMPACT OF MOTHER TONGUE ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ENGLISH LANG...

This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may -be due to poor foundation in English Language at the primary school level.. This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may be due to poor foundation in English language at the primary school level.. Okoro (2000) has stated that the problem of poor level of achievement of primary school.. Kolawole (2002) also confirmed that the performance of the primary school pupils in English language was very poor.. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school' irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, They further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and.. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.. (ii) Are there adequate teaching materials for teachers to teach the students?. HO1: There is no significant relationship between mother tongue and students' performance in English Language.

<p><br></p><p><strong><span>ABSTRACT</span></strong></p><p><span>This study has thrown an insight into </span><span>the <span>impact </span>of <span>mother tongue in the speaking skills of English language.</span><span>The impact: of "mother tongue" was noticed in the section of grammar and sentence structure and this affected their dialect and their grammar and sentences structure.</span></span></p><p><span>Students' background in all the four language skills listening, speaking, reading and writing was extremely woeful.</span><span> <span>Poor still was their timidity towards speaking of English Language, Some of the teachers did not hide their interest regarding their zeal in teaching the subject.</span></span></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong></strong></p><p><strong><span>CHAPTER ONE</span></strong></p><p><strong><span>INTRODUCTION</span></strong></p><p><strong><span>1.1 Background to the Study</span></strong></p><p><span>The importance of English language acquisition as a stepping-stone for proficiency in other school subjects cannot be over emphasized. The.' knowledge is important both for educational, economical and national development of a country. The importance of English language as a school subject derives mainly from its utilitarian value to the larger Nigerian society, English is the officia1 language of administration and commerce, It is major language of science. Above all, Salami (2002) had emphasized the importance of tile USC of English language in improving communication among, the various ethnic groups in, Nigeria, He further highlighted the need for improving the quality of spoken and written English. language among school children.</span></p><p><span>However, one of the current educational problems of public interest is that of poor level of achievement especially in public examinations (Kolawole1998) Kolawole and Dele 2002). This problem of underachievement among school children has persisted in many subject areas such as Mathematics, English and Science (Ivowi, Okebukola, and Oladorun, 1992; Falayajo, 1997). This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may -be due to poor foundation in English Language at the primary school level. There are also several research reports, which support the view, that language inefficiency invariably leads to poor academic performance (Ayodele, 1988; Falayajo, 1997). No wonder why today, according to Iroegbu (2006) much emphasis is placed on the passing of English language at credit or distinction Level in addition to other subjects to enable any candidate gain admission into any Nigerian Higher Institution of learning or be placed well in a good white collar job.</span></p><p><span>In recognition of the importance of English language for enhancing educational attainment as well as for improving communication ability of citizens, the government had made the subject a core subject (FGN, 2004). It is also compulsory for students to have credit in English language before entering the university. This also explains why many parents go off their way to see that their children pass at credit level or above in English language.</span></p><p><span>The importance of English language as a school subject derives mainly from, its utilitarian value to the larger Nigerian society. English is the official language of administration and commerce. It is major language of science. Above all, Salami (2002) had emphasized the importance of the use of English language in improving communication among the various ethnic groups in Nigeria. He further highlighted the need for improving the quality of spoken and written English language among school children.</span></p><p><span>However, one of the current educational problems of public interest is that of poor level of achievement especially in public examinations (Kolawole .1998, Kolawole and Dele 2002). This problem of underachievement among school children has persisted in many subject areas such as Mathematics, English and Science (Akpan, Ivowi, Okebukola, and Oladotun, 1992; Falayajo, 1997). This poor level of achievement in many subject areas may be due to poor foundation in English language at the primary school level. There are also several research reports, which support ·the view that languageinefficiency invariably leads to poor academic performance (Oluikpe, 1979; Ayodele, 1988 Falayajo, 19.97 Onukaogu and Arua, 1997; Onukaogu, 2002).</span></p><p><span>Okoro (2000) has stated that the problem of poor level of achievement of primary school. children were a serious one in Nigeria and this was in spite of the fact that Nigeria had set up goals for increasing minimum level of learning by 1995. The author had observed that ample evidences of poor performance were still observed as the pupils move up the system. Attempt was therefore made to find out the extent to which Okoro's (2000) observation applies to primary school English. Language beyond the year 2000.</span></p><p><span>Perhaps the way English language is taught in schools and colleges may be blamed for some of the observed lapses in English language achievement and skills of learners. Ubahakwe (1991), Ohia (1997) and Duff (1997) had criticized the traditional teaching strategy for use in</span></p><p><span>English language classrooms. Kolawole (1991,1998) had blamed the Use of traditional teaching strategy for lack of good grasp of basic skills in writing. Williams (1990) had described this teaching strategy as a hit and miss affair. Oglan (1997) had criticized the domineering nature of traditional teaching strategy which renders learners passive in class. He therefore recommended an activity classroom where learners especially at the primary school level, can make learning a fun: Such learning activities may include learning with objects, things, photographs, films etc.</span></p><p><span>Kolawole (2002) also confirmed that the performance of the primary school pupils in English language was very poor. They stressed further that the standard was poor due to a number of other. reasons such as:</span></p><p><span>i. The use of tribal language in the lower classes of the primary school;</span></p><p><span>ii. Some pupils do not understand the grammar because their teachers themselves do not know it; and</span></p><p><span>iii. In most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language even up to the secondary school level.</span></p><p><span>These researchers are of the opinion that there should be a review in the language policy on education. The review according to them should contain recommendations that will make pupils to have exposure to the subject quite early from the primary school' irrespective of the advantages of mother tongue, they further suggested that teaching and learning of English should be more practical in our schools, and also the number of years of study and. teaching periods should 'be increased. Finally, materials for learning the subject should be supplied.</span></p><p><span>This will be the time when the problem of failure in the subject will hopefully be overcome. So a firm foundation in English language is very important for better performance.</span></p><p><span>Ogunsanwo (2003) has a different view on the use of English language in the early years of the primary school. He opined that the use of mother tongue .in the process of teaching and learning in the early years helps, not only to preserve and value ones culture but also to develop it lexically. According to the author, the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the mother tongue or English language.</span></p><p><span>He felt that to use English language at that level will lead to the children having a mental translation of a1l concepts presented in English language to their mother tongue in order to gain sufficient meaning of the concepts presented. The researcher believes that a citizen that is literate even only in the mother tongue will be sufficiently equipped to live a useful life in the fast changing world. So if permanent literacy is to be promoted in the primary schools the use of the mother tongue as the medium of instruction in schools ought to be encouraged.</span></p><p><span>Harker (2000) investigated gender differences in achievement of boys and girls in schools in New Zealand. The study which employed a large sample of 5300 pupils showed that the achievement of girls in English language was significantly higher than that of boys both in terms of mean curriculum coverage and examination learning outcomes. The results however showed that boys achieved significantly better results than girls in Mathematics. The result further revealed that <span>there<em> </em></span>was no significant difference in the achievement of boys and girls in Science (Okeke, 2004). Iyowi, Okebukola, Oludotun and Akpan (1992) showed that English language and literature achievements by Nigerian Junior Secondary School Students is very poor (Ivowi, et al, 1992; Okoro, 2000). Primary schoolchildren in the age range of (6-1lyrs) need to improve level of their achievement or at least the number achieving minimum standard. This target has not been met (Okoro, 2000).</span></p><p><span>Although English language retains its dominant position in the education. Delivery system in Nigeria, the thrust of our educational language policy is the use of the. Mother tongue or the language of the immediate community in pre-primary and primary education. Interestingly, private educational entrepreneurs provide pre-primary education exclusively through the medium of English language. The mother tongue medium education at the primary school level is provided in less than twenty Nigerian languages throughout the country. English is the exclusive medium of instruction at the junior and senior levels of secondary school education.</span></p><p><span>It was in recognition of the importance and contributions of mother tongue to education that made the, Federal Ministry of Education in Collaboration with other educational statutory agencies include in the National Policy on Education published in 1977, revised in 1981, the use of mother tongue as a medium of educating pupils at the pre-primary and primary level throughout the country.</span></p><p><span>According to the National Policy on education published in 1977 revised in 1981, Section 2(u) which stated that “Government will ensure that the medium of instruction will be principally the mother tongue or the language of the immediate community” also in section 3 of the same National Policy on Education stated that:</span></p><p><span>“Government will see to it that the medium of instruction in the primary school is initially the mother tongue of the immediate community and at a later stage English”.</span></p><p><span>The importance of Nigerian language in the educational process is stated in section.</span></p><p><span>“In addition to appreciating the importance of language in educational process, and as a means of preserving peoples’ culture, the government considers it In the best interest of national unity that each child should be encouraged to learn one of the three major languages other than his mother tongue”.</span></p><p><span>The mother tongue therefore, is a part of the Nigerian culture; it conveys or transmits culture and itself in subjects to culturally conditioned attitudes and beliefs (Awoniyi, 1975). The positive results of the experiment in Mother Tongue Medium in Yoruba carried out at the then University of Ife empirically demonstrated the great advantages, of mother tongue in primary education for scholastic attainment (Bamgbose, 1984) and even in the successful mastery of English as a second language.</span></p><p><span>At this juncture, it is very imperative to look at whether mother tongue has bearing on the English language stage among the secondary school students. It is important to draw attention to the presence of the problems and on the basis of what will be found out recommend what could be doneto reduce them if they cannot be totally eradicated.</span></p><p><strong><span>1.2 Statement of the Problem</span></strong></p><p><span>The study is designed to examine the influence of mother tongue on Students performance in English language in Junior School Certificate Examination. The study investigated if mother tongue is solely the cause of the student’s woeful performance in English Language, in Junior School Certificate Examination or if there are other complementing factors.</span></p><p><span>Several scholars have addressed the core problems of communicative competence in the use of English language as L2 and its use as the main language of instruction in Nigeria's education delivery process. It is unfortunate that most school leavers (apart from the products of elite private schools) do not possess the required competence in the four language skills for both cognitive and communicative functions.</span></p><p><span>Statistics released by the West African Examination Council, which conducts the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination, show that less than ten percent of secondary school leaver passes in English language at credit level. At the tertiary level of education students have so much difficult with their communicative skills In English that they cannot function effectively in the academic use of English (Okoro, 2000).</span></p><p><span>There is no doubt that there is a great diversity of varieties and functions of English in Nigeria. For example, it is extensively used in both the electronicand the print media, in the judiciary, the police, the armed forces, the legislative, etc. and as a lingua franca in political mobilization, ethical orientation and population education. This confirms the entrenchment of English as the dominant official language of Nigeria. The nagging problem however concerns the quality of English that is taught and used in the system. The concern being expressed in informed educational circles is the extent to which the variety and quality of English being learned and used the school system can serve in achieving Nigeria's educational goals and the objectives.</span></p><p><span>It is therefore generally accepted that in teaching .and learning processes the mother tongue of the child is of utmost importance. For one thing, it categorizes a large part of the child's environment, that is, it has names for most of the objects, actions, ideas, attributes and so on that are so important to him, as well as to any society. In many developing countries today, this is either local language or the language of the previous colorizing power. The mother tongue.is the child's environment and is the natural basis on which verbal skills can be built, children learn through communicating in a language, which they understood, hence the need for this study: Impact of mother tongue on students’ performance in English Language.</span></p><p><strong><span>1.3 Objectives of The Study</span></strong></p><p><span>The broad objective of this study is to assess Language barrier and the performance of students in English Language in secondary schools. The specific objectives are:</span></p><p><!--[if !supportLists]--><span><span>i.<span>                    </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span>To identify the causes of failure in English Language in secondary schools;</span></p><p><span>To identify the factors responsible for the students’ inability to learn English as a second language ;</span></p><p><!--[if !supportLists]--><span><span>ii.<span>                  </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span>To determine the effect of language barrier on the performance of the students in the target language and;</span></p><p><!--[if !supportLists]--><span><span>iii.<span>                 </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span>To find out if the content of the English curriculum and the textbooks used embrace all the various aspects of the language that meet the needs of the learners.</span></p><p></p><p><strong><span>1.4 Research Questions</span></strong></p><p><span>The following research questions will be used in:</span></p><p><span>(i)         Is there any way that teachers can motivate students to speak English in the school?</span></p><p><span>(ii)  Are there adequate teaching materials for teachers to teach the students?</span></p><p><span>(iii) Is there sufficient period to teach the subject on the    school time-table?</span></p><p><span>(iv)   Are there specialized teaches to teach the subject?</span></p><p><span>(v)   Are there anyway students are exposed to correct pronunciation of words?</span></p><p><strong><span>1.5 Significance or the Study.</span></strong></p><p><span>This study would provide a threshold for proper understanding of the impacts of mother tongue on students' performance in English Language. It will also serve as a rich source of data for consultation by teachers and students on how to improve the performance of students in English Language. The project will form an invaluable material for the academia and the public in general.</span></p><p><strong><span>1.6 Delimitation or the Study</span></strong></p><p><span>The study essentially covers Nigerian secondary schools but with specific reference to secondary schools in Okota/lsolo Local Government Area. This choice is made to cover both private and public schools. The schools were selected randomly based on students’ population and enrolment strength. Also the presence of a WAEC marking centre within the Okota Secondary Schools Complex makes for easy access to data, hence the choice of Okota.</span></p><p><strong><span>1.7         Limitations of the study</span></strong></p><p><span>The chief limitation faced by the researcher was the inability to reach the target audience to conduct interview as well as to administer the questionnaires amongst teachers of the target secondary schools. To mitigate this and other shortcomings, the researcher had to rely much on mail questionnaire as well as the few people that could be interviewed and those who willingly completed the questionnaires to corroborate her personal experience in the industry.</span></p><p></p><p></p>

Okoro. (2000) has stated that the problem of poor level of achievement of primary. school.. He therefore recommended an. activity classroom where learners especially at the primary school level, can. make learning a fun: Such learning activities may include learning with objects,. things, photographs, films etc.. Kolawole. (2002) also confirmed that the performance of the primary school pupils in. English language was very poor.. In. most cases English language teachers in the senior primary schools. resort to these of mother tongue to teach and explain the English language. even up to the secondary school level.. According to the author,. the use of English language in the early primary school makes the average. primary school child unable to be sufficiently literary in either the. mother tongue or English language.. The broad objective of this study is to assess. Language barrier and the performance of students in English Language in. secondary schools.. (ii) Are. there adequate teaching materials for teachers to teach the students?

INFLUENCE OF MOTHER TONGUE ON THE ORAL ENGLISH OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, Free Undergraduate Project Topics, Research Materials, Education project topics, Economics project topics, computer science project topics, Hire a data analyst

The importance of the relationship between language and society cannot be over-emphasized in the education of a child.. It is the language of instruction, language of constitution, language of nationalism, media, Government, education among others.. They often explain meanings of English words using the mother tongue language.. It is therefore the intention of this study to identify problems that affect the oral English of students in the secondary schools as regards the influence of mother tongue language on it.. In addition, suggestions and recommendations would be made on how to reduce the influence of mother tongue language on oral English.. There is no doubt that secondary school students in Nigeria are being faced with the problem of mother tongue language interference in studying English language.. The influence of the mother tongue language on the pronunciation of English words is one of the problems.. Hence, series of works have been done concerning the problems of mother tongue language interference on the oral English of secondary school students in English language but it was observed that little or no emphasis has been made on the influence of mother tongue language on the oral English of secondary school students.. Consequently, there has been a need to conduct a research work on the influence of mother tongue language on the oral English of secondary school students.. The general purpose of this study is to examine the influence of mother tongue language on the oral English of secondary school students.. MOTHER TONGUE: Mother tongue is a language of one’s parents or language of the child’s immediate environment.. ORAL ENGLISH:Oral English is the way in which English language is transmitted through a conventional system sounds.. The study will help the teachers of English language to know the measures to be taken in order to help students minimize their mother tongue language interference on oral English.. It would help the education curriculum planners to place premium on the essential aspect of the study of English language which would be of immense help in alleviating the problems of mother tongue language interference in oral English.

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