The whole woman: sex and gender differences in variation. Language Variation and Change 1:245–267
by Penelope Eckert , 1989
"... Speaker's sex has emerged as one of the most important social factors in the quantitative study of phonological variation. However, sex does not have a uni-form effect on variables or even on variables that represent sound change in progress. This is because sex is not directly related to lingu ..."
Speaker's sex has emerged as one of the most important social factors in the quantitative study of phonological variation. However, sex does not have a uni-form effect on variables or even on variables that represent sound change in progress. This is because sex is not directly related to linguistic behavior but reflects complex social practice. The correlations of sex with linguistic variables are only a reflection of the effects on linguistic behavior of gender —the com-plex social construction of sex—and it is in this construction that one must seek explanations for such correlations. Sociolinguists generally treat sex in terms of oppositional categories (male/female), and the effects of sex on variation are generally sought in linguistic differences between male and female speakers. However, because gender differences involve differences in orientation to other social categories, the effects of gender on linguistic behavior can show up in differences within sex groupings. Data on sound changes in progress (the North-ern Cities Chain Shift) among Detroit area adolescents show that gender has
Models, forests and trees of York English: was/were variation as a case study for statistical practice. Language Variation and Change
by Sali A. Tagliamonte, R. Harald Baayen, Sid Smith Hallroom , 2012
"... What is the explanation for vigorous variation between was and were in plural existential constructions and what is the optimal tool for analyzing it? The standard variationist tool — the variable rule program — is a generalized linear model; however, recent developments in statistics have introduce ..."
What is the explanation for vigorous variation between was and were in plural existential constructions and what is the optimal tool for analyzing it? The standard variationist tool — the variable rule program — is a generalized linear model; however, recent developments in statistics have introduced new tools, including mixed-effects models, random forests and conditional infer-ence trees. In a step-by-step demonstration, we show how this well known variable benefits from these complementary techniques. Mixed-effects models provide a principled way of assessing the importance of random-effect factors such as the individuals in the sample. Random forests provide information about the importance of predictors, whether factorial or continuous, and do so also for unbalanced designs with high multicollinearity, cases for which the family of linear models is less appropriate. Conditional inference trees straightforwardly visualize how multiple predictors operate in tandem. Taken together the results confirm that polarity, distance from verb to plural element and the nature of the DP are significant predictors. Ongoing linguistic change and so-cial reallocation via morphologization are operational. Furthermore, the results make predictions that can be tested in future research. We conclude that variationist research can be substantially enriched by an expanded tool kit. Was/were as a case study for statistical practice 1 1
LANGUAGE CHANGE ACROSS THE LIFESPAN: /r / IN MONTREAL FRENCH
by Gillian Sankoff
"... We address the articulation between language change in the historical sense and language change as experienced by individual speakers through a trend and panel study of the change from apical to dorsal /r / in Montreal French. The community as a whole rapidly advanced its use of dorsal [R]. Most ind ..."
We address the articulation between language change in the historical sense and language change as experienced by individual speakers through a trend and panel study of the change from apical to dorsal /r / in Montreal French. The community as a whole rapidly advanced its use of dorsal [R]. Most individual speakers followed across time were stable after the critical period, with phonological patterns set by the end of adolescence. A sizeable minority, however, made substantial changes. The window of opportunity for linguistic modification in later life may be expanded with rapid change in progress when linguistic variables take on social significance.* 1. INTRODUCTION. Reintegrating
When is a change not a change?: a case study on the dialect origins of New Zealand English
by David Britain
"... In studying language change, variationists are, naturally perhaps, more interested in the new, innovative form than the old conservative one, and, because of the actuation problem, investigations of changes in progress very rarely are able to shed light on the change in its very earliest stages. In ..."
In studying language change, variationists are, naturally perhaps, more interested in the new, innovative form than the old conservative one, and, because of the actuation problem, investigations of changes in progress very rarely are able to shed light on the change in its very earliest stages. In this article, I suggest that we should perhaps pay more attention than we have at present to the origins of the change (in addition to its route and destination) and the nature of the conservative form if we are to chart ongoing changes in an accurate way. Here, I highlight an example of a feature of New Zealand English (NZE) (realizations of the MOUTH diphthong with front mid-open onsets) that has, until recently, been assumed to have resulted from a change of the Southern Shift-kind – a raising and fronting to [èú ã èê]-but which, as I demonstrate using contemporary and past dialectological, as well as sociodemographic evidence, did not undergo this change in this way. Indeed, the supposedly conservative [aú] form has barely been used at all as a conversational vernacular variant in NZE. I argue here that the present-day NZE realization is far more likely to be the outcome of a process of dialect leveling operating on the mixture of forms brought to New Zealand by British and Irish migrants in the 19 th century. The moral of the story is that if we think
Modeling contact-induced language change
by Naomi Nagy, Naomi Nagy - University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 4.1 , 1997
"... Modeling contact-induced language change ..."
Sociolinguistics and sociology: current directions, future partnerships
by Christine Mallinson , 2009
"... In this article, I discuss the past, present, and future of interdisciplinary scholar-ship between sociolinguists and sociologists. After detailing some of the broader history of collaboration between sociolinguists and sociologists, I examine two sub-areas of scholarship: the variationist tradition ..."
In this article, I discuss the past, present, and future of interdisciplinary scholar-ship between sociolinguists and sociologists. After detailing some of the broader history of collaboration between sociolinguists and sociologists, I examine two sub-areas of scholarship: the variationist tradition from sociolinguistics and the social stratification tradition from sociology. I contend that, given their complementary research questions and analytic traditions, these areas provide new potential for interdisciplinary research initiatives. I give suggestions for research partnerships between sociolinguists and sociologists, and close with a discussion of some practical ways in which sociolinguists and sociologists can build interdisciplinarity both pedagogically as well as professionally. Relationships between Sociolinguistics and Sociology Modern sociolinguistics originated in the 1960s as an interdisciplinary subfield intersecting sociology, anthropology, and linguistics. In 1963, anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss wrote that the methodological similarity
Gillian Sankoff. Age: Apparent time and real time.
by unknown authors
"... During the 1960s, linguists working both in the structuralist tradition and in the evolving generative paradigm tended to treat the individual speaker of a language as the natural locus of linguistic inquiry. The field had inherited the traditional Saussurean dichotomies separating language from spe ..."
During the 1960s, linguists working both in the structuralist tradition and in the evolving generative paradigm tended to treat the individual speaker of a language as the natural locus of linguistic inquiry. The field had inherited the traditional Saussurean dichotomies separating language from speech, and synchronic from diachronic linguistics. The grammar of the individual, conceptualized as an abstract, internalized, mental construct, was construed as having a systematic character. Speech communities, if considered at all, were characterized as epiphenomena – nothing more than the sum of individual idiolects. The first research to show how synchronic evidence can be used to reconstruct the history of language change also pointed the way to understanding the systematic chararcter of the speech community. In 1961, Labov carried out sociolinguistic interviews with 69 residents of Martha’s Vineyard for his study of the (ay) and (aw) diphthongs (1963). He calculated an index value for the height of the vowel nucleus for each speaker for each diphthong, discovering that the nuclei of both diphthongs were progressively higher with each younger age cohort (although those
A Quantitative Analysis of Diphthongization in Montreal French
by Laurel Mackenzie, Gillian Sankoff, Laurel Mackenzie, Gillian Sankoff
"... A Quantitative Analysis of Diphthongization in Montreal French In Montreal French, a process of diphthongization affects long vowels: those that are inherently long due to historical compensatory lengthening (Yaeger-Dror and Kemp, 1992), and those that are allophonically lengthened before voiced fri ..."
A Quantitative Analysis of Diphthongization in Montreal French In Montreal French, a process of diphthongization affects long vowels: those that are inherently long due to historical compensatory lengthening (Yaeger-Dror and Kemp, 1992), and those that are allophonically lengthened before voiced fricatives and /R / (Dumas, 1981; Santerre and Millo, 1978). Our quantitative analysis of diphthongization in real time examines both the trajectory of this change through the community as well as individual speakers ’ participation in it across their lifespans. Our study also provides acoustic measurements of the Montreal French vowel system. We tracked individuals ’ vowel trajectories across a 24-year span for a panel of six speakers of diverse social classes. Matched trend samples from the 1971 and 1984 Montreal corpora, with four speakers sampled per year, provide a picture of the community as a whole. We find that four vowels show significant lowering and/or backing in the community, and that all long vowels show decreased diphthongization. Some panel speakers ’ longitudinal movements mirror these changes, while other speakers are stable across their lifespans and still others show apparently anomalous movements. We discuss these results and their interpretation.
French Futures in Real Time
by Gillian Sankoff, Suzanne Evans Wagner, Laura Jensen, Gillian Sankoff, Suzanne Evans Wagner, Laura Jensen
"... To understand the relationship between change in the grammars of individuals and language change as an historical phenomenon, trend studies and panel studies each provide crucial data that can be combined for a fuller picture. Looking at any particular linguistic change in historical time ..."
To understand the relationship between change in the grammars of individuals and language change as an historical phenomenon, trend studies and panel studies each provide crucial data that can be combined for a fuller picture. Looking at any particular linguistic change in historical time
Caribbean Creoles and the Speech Community
by Peter L. Patrick , 1998
Abstract not found
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CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Language in the crib
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CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: The linguistic interpretation of aphasic syndromes
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CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: A Language Theory of Discrimination.” Quarterly
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CiteSeerX — Citation Query The effect of discrimination training on speech perception: Noncategorical perception ›
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: The effect of discrimination training on speech perception: Noncategorical perception
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