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Language affects the way that humans build categories. When two objects share a verbal label, children and adults are encouraged to group them together. In the present study, we offer a stringent test of the potency of labels by comparing them to non-linguistic cues that have been matched in terms of critical properties. In Experiment 1, Four-year-old children were given two categorization tasks with novel natural kinds and artifacts. In both tasks, we compared the effectiveness of novel Labels like zeg and equally discriminable, intentionally introduced patterned Frames. In Experiment 2, we included pretest trials before each of the tasks to ensure children’s awareness of the cues. We observed a pervasive advantage of Labels over Frames in both experiments. Our results offer some of the strongest evidence to date for the conclusion that young children prioritize labels over superficially equipotent non-linguistic cues when drawing category boundaries.
Experiment 1 investigated children’s spontaneous use of linguistic and non-linguistic cues in forming novel artifact and natural kind categories.
The results of Experiment 1 suggest that, by age four, children already understand that labels serve as category markers but arbitrary non-linguistic cues (patterned frames) do not. One possible concern is that, despite our efforts, frames may have appeared less intentional than the labels in our paradigm (for instance, they could have been interpreted as having no particular meaning for the experimenter). As a result, children may not have paid attention to frames, noticed that frames varied,
In the present study, we set out to assess the role of language in young children’s category formation. Previous studies suggested that infants make use of linguistic cues to a greater extent than non-linguistic cues when forming novel categories but the properties of the two types of cues (discriminability, intentional status) were not always matched; furthermore, comparisons of labels to other cues in preschool-aged children were limited. We addressed these issues by comparing the effects of
- S.R. Waxman et al.Words as invitations to form categories: Evidence from 12-to 13-month-old infants
- J. Loewenstein et al.Relational language and the development of relational mapping
- B. Landau et al.Object shape, object function, and object name
Journal of Memory and Language
- B. Landau et al.Syntactic context and the shape bias in children’s and adults’ lexical learning
Journal of Memory and Language
- B. Landau et al.The importance of shape in early lexical learning
- M. Johanson et al.The role of labels and facts in children’s and adults’ categorization
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
- S.A. Gelman et al.Categories and induction in young children
- S.A. Gelman et al.Conceptual influences on category-based induction
- C.R. Gallistel et al.Preverbal and verbal counting and computation(Video) Rethink Autism Tip: Teach Your Child Functional Language pt 2
- A.L. Fulkerson et al.Words (but not tones) facilitate object categorization: Evidence from 6- and 12-month-olds
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Choice for shape vs textural matching by young children
Perceptual and Motor Skills
Cognitive foundations of natural history
Object names and object functions serve as cues to categories for infants
The role of social‐referential context in verbal and nonverbal symbol learning
Children extend both words and non-verbal actions to novel exemplars
Sources of mathematical thinking: Behavioral and brain-imaging evidence
- Prerequisite skills in cognitive testing: Innovations in theory and recommendations for practice
2021, Cognitive Development
Testing cognitive skill development is important for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes, especially for young children and individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. Developmental tests have been created for infants and toddlers, while traditional IQ tests are often employed beginning in the later preschool period. However, IQ tests rely on developmental skills that are rapidly changing during early childhood. Here, we introduce the idea of prerequisite skills in developmental domains, which are discrete skills required for, but not explicitly tested by, traditional IQ tests. Focusing on general cognition, particularly among children with a chronological or mental age under 4 years, may fail to capture important nuances in skill development. New skill-based assessments are needed in general, and in particular for categorization, which is foundational to higher-order cognitive skills. Novel measures quantifying categorization skills would provide a more sensitive measure of development for young children and older individuals with low developmental levels.
Language and categorization in monolinguals and bilinguals
Research articleFrom domain-specific to domain-general? The developmental path of metacognition for strategy selection
Cognitive Development, Volume 48, 2018, pp. 62-81
We examined the developmental course of metacognition concurrently in arithmetic problem solving and in episodic memory. In Experiment 1, children aged between 8 and 13 were asked to judge the ease with which they would select the better strategy on a given item before actually selecting and executing it. In Experiments 2 and 3, children had to judge their level of confidence in a strategy once selected. Results of these experiments indicated that children are able to accurately judge whether they select the better strategy on a given item in both the arithmetic and the memory domains, and that this ability improves with age. Using a comprehensive set of metacognitive measures, our data support the hypothesis that metacognition is first domain-specific and then generalizes across domains as children mature. Implications of these findings to further our understanding of age-related changes in metacognition and its involvement in strategy selection are discussed.
Research articleFollow my point? Preschoolers’ expectations about veridicality disrupt their understanding of deceptive pointsSee AlsoI migliori 10 libri di Pnl consigliati nel 2020یوزر و پسورد یودمی UdemyLinguistic Element - an overview12 Linguistics Books To Help You Learn More About Language
Cognitive Development, Volume 48, 2018, pp. 190-202
Preschoolers struggle to correctly interpret deceptive pointing. Does this difficulty stem from a bias to follow pointing gestures or a bias to believe those who point? Four-year-olds saw either deceptive pointing (which violates both biases) or true negative pointing (which only violates children’s bias to follow pointing). A hider hid a sticker under one of two cups and pointed to the empty one. In the deceptive condition, the hider falsely claimed she would point to where the sticker was, whereas in the true negative condition, she truthfully claimed she would point to where the sticker was not. Preschoolers correctly interpreted true negative, but not deceptive, pointing. Even when a reliable speaker repeatedly reminded them about the deceptive intentions of the hider, children failed to search correctly. Inhibitory control helped children understand true negative points. Explaining how they were tricked helped children understand deceptive points. Children follow a deceptive point because they cannot overcome the bias to believe the pointer is truthful. Violations of this bias overwhelm other cognitive abilities that otherwise help children interpret others’ communication.
Research articleWhy should I trust you? Investigating young children’s spontaneous mistrust in potential deceivers
Cognitive Development, Volume 48, 2018, pp. 146-154(Video) 386...11 Prelinguistic Skills... #1 Reacts to Toys and Objects...teachmetotalk.com.. Laura Mize
Children must learn not to trust everyone to avoid being taken advantage of. In the current study, 5- and 7-year-old children were paired with a partner whose incentives were either congruent (cooperative condition) or conflicting (competitive condition) with theirs. Children of both ages were more likely to mistrust information spontaneously provided by the competitive than the cooperative partner, showing a capacity for detecting contextual effects on incentives. However, a high proportion of children, even at age 7, initially trusted the competitive partner. After being misled once, almost all children mistrusted the partner on a second trial irrespective of the partner’s incentives. These results demonstrate that while even school age children are mostly trusting, they are only beginning to spontaneously consider other’s incentives when interpreting the truthfulness of their utterances. However, after receiving false information only once they immediately switch to an untrusting attitude.
Research articleMusic to my mouth: Evidence of domain general rate priming in adults and children
Cognitive Development, Volume 48, 2018, pp. 219-224
Will listening to music on the radio change the way you or your children speak? Comparisons are often drawn between the domains of music and language. Temporal processing is one general mechanism that influences both domains; however, a cross-domain influence of rate priming has not yet been established between music and speech. The current research examines if the timing in one modality (music) affects the production timing in a different modality (language) for both adults (Experiment 1) and preschool children (Experiment 2). Participants listened to short unfamiliar musical melodies presented at either a fast or slow rate, and then described pictures aloud. Results demonstrate that both adults’ and children’s language production was influenced by the timing of the music domain; faster musical primes led to faster speech production. These findings support domain general temporal processing since musical timing affects linguistic timing even when the music has no linguistic component.
Research articleBody schema activation for self-other matching in youth
Cognitive Development, Volume 48, 2018, pp. 155-166
The purpose of the present study was to assess the degree to which children and adolescents represent and match the observed body parts of others onto the internal representation of their own body parts. Male and female participants of different age groups (7–9, 10–12, and 13–16 years old) completed a body-part compatibility task in which they responded to coloured targets (relevant feature) presented over the hand or foot (irrelevant feature) of pictures of male models of different ages (7, 11, and 15 years old). Body-part compatibility effects emerged for the males in the 10–12 and 13–16-year-old age groups, which only occurred when viewing models of their own age-group peers (i.e., 11 and 15 year old models, respectively). In contrast, no body-part compatibility effects were found for males in the 7–9-year-old group nor in any of the three groups of females. Based on these data, it is suggested that children and adolescent males seem to develop the ability to match the bodies of other males to their own after 9 years of age and this matching process seems strongest for their age-matched peers.
Research articleWhen do children start to take mitigating circumstances into account when judging the act of killing?
Cognitive Development, Volume 48, 2018, pp. 94-104
The current study addresses the question of whether children start to judge the act of killing a person or an animal with leniency, and if so when. Four- and six-year-old preschoolers and 8-, 10- and 12-year-old children participated in the study (N = 300). Participants were asked to judge 16 scenarios in which a person killed another person or an animal under a set of six circumstances. According to Western normative ethical standards, three of the set of circumstances (i.e. killing in self-defense, accidentally and -in the case of animals- for food) are mitigating and attract less blame, while the remaining three (i.e., killing intentionally due to overestimation of the risk and -in the case of animals- due to greed for food) are non-mitigating. The results showed that from a very early age children form their judgments of the act of killing across three latent constructs which are identical to the Western normative ethics. However, children judge the mitigating circumstances with statistically significant leniency only after the sixth year.(Video) Jennifer Cole
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The addition of redundantly correlated linguistic cues reinforces children's learning of the links between perceptual cues and category structure. This effect was predicted by studies and models of adult category learning.
The Competition model (Bates & MacWhinney, 1987) defines linguistic cues as linguistic components from all linguistic levels. They can be morphological cues, word order or semantic knowledge about the relations between objects in a sentence.
Language features make it easier for you to comprehend what the author is saying. The writer often employs a variety of linguistic strategies to get his point through. Additionally, the authors employ devices like the choice of language, intonation, grammatical structures, and turns of phrase.
The informative, expressive, and directive purposes of language.
Examples of cue phrases include now, well, so, and, but, then, after all, furthermore, however, in consequence, as a matter of fact, in fact, actually, okay, alright, for example, and incidentally.
The definition of a cue is a signal to a person to do something. An example of cue is a word in a play telling an actor when to come on stage. An example of cue is a girlfriend hinting to her boyfriend that she'd like to get married.
Linguistics helps us understand our world
It captures unique conceptualizations of the world and has its own ways of constructing words, phrases and sentences for communicating ideas. As we compare the words and structures of various languages, we come to a greater understanding of the world we live in.
Hence, we conclude that the Dictionary and grammar is the most important for linguists.
Language is a vital part of human connection. Although all species have their ways of communicating, humans are the only ones that have mastered cognitive language communication. Language allows us to share our ideas, thoughts, and feelings with others. It has the power to build societies, but also tear them down.
- Phonetics - the study of speech sounds in their physical aspects.
- Phonology - the study of speech sounds in their cognitive aspects.
- Morphology - the study of the formation of words.
- Syntax - the study of the formation of sentences.
- Semantics - the study of meaning.
- Pragmatics - the study of language use.
morphology (the structure of words) syntax (the structure of sentences) semantics (meaning) pragmatics (language in context)
According to Finocchiaro and Brumfit, there are five types of language functions based on their place, such as; Personal, Interpersonal, Directive, Referential, and Imaginative functions.
- Learning a new language improves your memory. ...
- Being bilingual makes you a better multitasker. ...
- Speaking other languages makes you a better communicator (in your native tongue too!) ...
- Learning a language encourages creativity. ...
- Being bilingual makes your brain bigger.
Feed Your Brain
The many cognitive benefits of learning languages are undeniable. People who speak more than one language have improved memory, problem-solving and critical-thinking skills, enhanced concentration, ability to multitask, and better listening skills.
- Enhanced Problem Solving Skills.
- Improved Verbal and Spatial Abilities.
- Improved Memory Function (long & short-term)
- Enhanced Creative Thinking Capacity.
- Better Memory.
- More Flexible and Creative Thinking.
- Improved Attitude Toward the Target Language and Culture.
- Increases Creativity. ...
- Improves Your Analytical Skills. ...
- Strengthens Your Brain Muscles. ...
- Develops Your Native Vocabulary. ...
- Brings School Success. ...
- Creates Job Security. ...
- Simplifies Foreign Communication.
Language enables students to play an active role in various communities of learners within and beyond the classroom. As students speak, write, and represent, they also listen to, read, and view the ideas and experiences of others.
Even only one language cans totally change the way of the communication, the attitude towards you and the impression which you will make in people with which you conduct a conversation. Nowadays it is like must to study and learn new languages, in terms of self development, comfort and confidence.
It helps a person filter out distractions and improves creativity. 2 They get used to dealing with unfamiliar situations. They get experience dealing with unfamiliar situations and “unknown” words. 3 Students develop practical intelligence when they experience learn different cultures.
What do you think are the positive effects of learning and studying a subject in your own native language? ›
Learning the native language signifies learning the same history and culture of your parents, relatives, and even the generations before and after. The self-awareness that you belong to your native country gives confidence and stability.
- Language is verbal, vocal, Language is sound. Language is an organization of sounds, of vocal symbols, the sounds some message. ...
- Language is a means of Communication. ...
- Language is Social Phenomenon. ...
- Language is non-instinctive, conventional. ...
- Language is Arbitrary. ...
- Language is Symbolic.
Language development is an important part of child development. It supports your child's ability to communicate. It also supports your child's ability to: express and understand feelings.
a method of reading instruction that applies what the child already knows about language from having learned to speak it.
Improve your skills
Learning a new language also demonstrates that you have a host of other skills. According to studies, multilinguals are better at problem-solving, more creative, and are better multitaskers. All of these skills are very attractive to any potential employer.
- Appropriate for the Speaker. One of the first questions to ask yourself is whether the language you plan on using in a speech fits with your own speaking pattern. ...
- Appropriate for the Audience. ...
- Appropriate for the Context. ...
- Appropriate for the Topic.
Children who learn a language at an earlier age are said to have stronger multitasking skills, creativity, and working memory. Since bilingual students have enough exposure to more than one language, they can discover word structures relatively quickly than monolinguals.