Assignment 1Due: Monday, September 16, 1996
Assignment 1: GrammaticalityThis assignment is due at the beginning of the Monday lecture class onSeptember 16. Be sure to write your TA's name and your recitation day onthe top of your assignment. All future assignments should also be handed in atthe beginning of the Monday lecture class in the week that they aredue. Assignments will be returned in recitation sections, beginning on theFriday after they are handed in.
1. Prescriptive & Descriptive Grammar
In order to answer this question, you will have to be familiar with somenotation used in linguistics. An asterisk (*) is used to mark sentences whichare ungrammatical. Grammatical sentences are unmarked. Recall that"ungrammatical" is used in the descriptive sense of interest tolinguists, not in the prescriptive sense. Pinker, whose use of the term wewill follow, defines "grammatical" as "well formed according toconsistent rules in the dialect of [a] speaker..." (p. 31). The dialect wehave in mind here is the spoken language of the general college-educatedAmerican population.
(A)Look at the sentences in (1a) and (1b). Why is (1b) ungrammatical?
(1) a. Two paintings are on the wall. b. *Two paintings is on the wall
(B) Now consider the sentences in (2). Do the grammaticality judgmentsindicated correspond to your own? Assuming the correctness of these judgments,what rule or rules could a speaker use to generate the grammatical sentences(2a) and (2c) but not generate the ungrammatical sentence in (2b). Keep inmind that your rule(s) should also be able to account for the sentences in(1). How does your description of the sentences in (1) and (2) differ fromprescriptions that govern standard usage?
(2) a. There are two paintings on the wall. b. *There is two paintings on the wall c. There's two paintings on the wall.
(C) The sentences in (3) show a similar pattern to the pattern seen in (1).However, the pattern in (4) is different from the one in (2). Write adescription of the rules needed to generate the grammatical sentences in (3)and (4). Your rules should not generate the ungrammatical sentences.
(3) a. A painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee are hanging on the wall. b. *A painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee is hanging on the wall (4) a. *There are a painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee hanging on the wall b. There is a painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee hanging on the wall. c. There's a painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee hanging on the wall.
2. Grammaticality Judgments
(A) Decide whether the phrases in (1) - (15) are grammatical in your spokendialect. (If you are not a native speaker of English, consult a nativespeaker for judgments). Mark ungrammatical sentences with an asterisk ( * )and say briefly what's wrong with them.
(1) To the bank. (2) The rat the cat the dog bit chased ran. (3) The cat the dog bit ran. (4) Being so flat, the Dutch bicycle everywhere. (5) Who do you wonder whether they will come. (6) Ivan a tin of caviar ate quickly. (7) Its mayor praised her village. (8) If you go to school, there's an elephant on the corner. (9) Susan told John that washing herself in public is a bad idea. (10) The candy ate the boy. (11) Immediately he opened the door he saw the murderer standing there. (12) The police officer arrested Sam and I. (13) Earlobe seven by hexed fruitless. (14) Go take dog for a walk! (15) Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.
(B) Often it is possible to make sense of an ungrammatical sentence. Likewisea grammatical sentence can be incomprehensible. Mark the incomprehensible butgrammatical sentences in (A) with a number sign (#).
3. American Sign Language
Read the discussion of deaf sign language in Pinker and the Perlmutter articlein the bulk pack before answering this question.
Sign language users all over the world have been struggling for years toeradicate the notion that because they do not use speech, their communicationssystems are not "real" languages. One characteristic of languages in generalis that there is an arbitrary relation between words and what they represent.You can't hear the French word 'chien,' for example, and know by its soundthat it refers to what the English word 'dog' refers to. Critics of signlanguages have often described them as "iconic," as a series of pictures andgestures for acting out the real world -- and thus dismissed them as nothingmore than complex mime. Consider the issue of iconicity in American SignLanguage (ASL) in light of the following evidence.
(A) The signs for male and female:
female: running thumb along jaw toward chin, mimicking bonnet strings
male: grasping an invisible cap near the forehead
female: thumb on chin, with a hand shape as if thumbing your nose at someone
male: thumb on forehead, same handshape.
-- How have these signs changed over time? How does this development affectthe debate over whether signs are iconic or not?
(B) First person pronouns:
When hearing children are first learning to speak, they often display acharming tendency to confuse the pronouns 'you' and 'me.' When asked, "Do youwant milk," they reply, "Yes, you want milk," believing that they aredescribing themselves. In a curious parallel, deaf children who are learningto sign will display, at the same age, the tendency to confuse the signs for'you' and 'me.' The adult will point to the child and ask a question, and thechild will point at the adult in reply, even though, once again, thesechildren are describing themselves.
-- Why do you think children make these mistakes? Based on the assumptionthat ASL is a true language, would you expect hearing children (who are notexposed to ASL) to make the same mistake as deaf children when responding topointing? Why or why not?
(C) Character placing:
When telling a story, an ASL signer is likely to name the characters at thebeginning (or whenever they appear) and in doing so, to "place" them at somelocation in space (one to the left, and one to the right, for example). Fromthat point on, the signer will refer to those locations by pointing instead ofrepeating the names.
-- Does these rules for pointing remind you of anything in spoken language?
While fingerspelling is not a grammatical part of ASL, many signs in ASL aresigned with the handshape of the first letter in the English word --'language' is signed with the "l" shape, 'class' with the "c" shape, and'water' with a "w". The colors blue, purple, green, orange and yellow are allsigned with the same motion, shaking the initial letter (b, p, g, o, or y)back and forth. 'Apple' is an "a" shape rotated at cheek level. At the sametime, 'onion' is an "x" shape moved the same way, so this pattern does notalways not hold.
-- How do these facts impact upon the iconicity debate?
(E) Iconicity in spoken language:
There are iconic elements in ordinary spoken English. Give some examples. Inwhat ways are similar to and/or different from iconic features of ASL?
Assignment 2Due: Monday, September 24, 1996
Assignment 2: Language, Grammar, and Thought
1. Tongan Syntax
The following (simplified) sentences are from Tongan, a Polynesian languagespoken on the island of Tonga in the Pacific. Each sentence is glossed (directlytranslated) and an English translation is also provided. The following abbreviationsare used: Pr=present tense, Pst =past tense, Nom=nominative case, Acc=accusativecase, 1ps=First person singular, 2ps=Second person singular.
Answer the following questions based on your observations of sentences(1)-(4): (a) what would you say is the main structural differencebetween Tongan and English? (b) how is tense realized in Tongan? (c) arethe nouns marked in any particular way?
How are the following sentences structurally different from the onesabove? Also, why is the 1ps pronoun in (5) different from the one in (8)?Similarly, why is the 2ps in (6) different from the one in (7)?
If you have adequately analyzed the above sentences, you should now beable to do some simple translations from English into Tongan! Try translatingthe following:
The man scares the child. ('scare' = 'fakailifiai')
The woman saw me. ('see' = 'vakai')
You ate the fish.
2. The Relationship between Language and Thought.
It is by now a well known fact (and those of you who have tried to learna foreign language will undoubtedly admit this) that certain things canbe expressed more conveniently in some languages than in others. While onelanguage may have a special word to refer exclusively to a particular objector notion, in another language this object or notion can be described onlyby using a whole phrase or sentence. For example, in Tuvaluan, a languagespoken by the Polynesian inhabitants of a group of islands in the CentralPacific, there are different words to refer to many different types of coconut,which need to be described at great length in English. Here are a few examples:
pii : drinking coconut, with little flesh and much water, at astage when the water is maximally sweet
uto : coconut at the stage when its husk can be chewed on andits water is still sweet
uttanu : mature coconut whose sprout has already pierced throughthe husk and whose water has turned into an edible spongious solid kernel
3. Grammar of Non-Standard English
Study the following three groups of sentences of Appalachian English.The sentences of each group share a grammatical feature not found in StandardEnglish. Describe these features.
4. Two puzzles
(a). Included in your bulkpack there is an excerpt from an interviewwith Miss Manners. What point relevant to a linguistics course does shemake in her discussion of ettiquette books?
a) Ten of the forms in the above paradigm are empty. Fill them in bydownloading and using the grammarPort-verbto generate them. Ignore the accent marks, which are not incorporated intothe Port-verb grammar.
b) For each of the following forms, give the tree structure that thegrammar assigns to it:
i) Determine which of these examples are fuzzy concepts. ii) Chooseone of the fuzzy concepts above. Name one prototypical member of that conceptand one member that is closer to the concept boundary. iii) Draw a diagramfor the concept 'dwelling' similar to that of Figure 6.2 in this chapter.Do the same for the concept 'vehicle'.
4 . [Finegan and Besnier, p. 40-42, #6] As in Russian, word orderin Spanish is used to encode information structure. The constituents ofa sentence may be ordered in a variety of ways, as shown by the followingexamples from Castilian Spanish, all of which can describe the same event.(S = subject; V = verb; O = direct object)
Consuelo envió el paquete.
Consuelo sent the package
Envió Consuelo el paquete.
sent Consuelo the package "CONSUELOSENT THE PACKAGE."
Envió el paquete Consuelo.
sent the package Consuelo
El paquete lo envió Consuelo.
the package it sent Consuelo
Consider the following conversational exchanges, focusing on the orderof constituents in the answers.
a. Q: ¿Qué hizo Consuelo?
what did Consuelo
"What did Consuelo do?"
A: Consuelo preparó la sangría.
Consuelo prepared the sangria
"Consuelo made the sangria."
b. Q: ¿Quién comió mi bocadillo?
who ate my sandwich
"Who ate my sandwich?"
A: Tu bocadillo lo comió Consuelo
your sandwich it ate Consuelo
"Consuelo ate your sandwich."
c. Q: ¿A quién dió Consuelo este regalo?
to whom gave Consuelo this present
"Who did Consuelo give this presentto?"
A: Este regalo lo dió Consuelo a su madre.
this present it gave Consuelo to her mother
"Consuelo gave this present to her mother."
d. Q: ¿Qué pasó?
e. Q: ¿Recibó Consuelo el premio?
received Consuelo the prize
"Did Consuelo get the prize?"
A: No, el premio lo recibió Paquita.
no the prize it received Paquita
"No, Paquita got the prize."
f. Q: ¿Recibó Consuelo esta carta?
received Consuelo this letter
"Did Consuelo get this letter?"
A: No, Consuelo recibió este paquete.
no Consuelo received this package
"No, Consuelo got this package."
g. Q: ¿Recibó Consuelo el premio?
received Consuelo the prize
"Did Consuelo get the prize?"
A: Si, el premio lo recibió Consuelo.
yes the prize it received Consuelo
"Yes, Consuelo got the prize."
(A) On the basis of this data, describe how word order is used to markinformation structure in statements (but not in questions). In particular,state which categories of information structure are marked through whichword order possibility. Make the statement of your rules as general aspossible.
(B) Notice that in certain sentences, the pronoun lo 'it' appears beforethe verb. What is the syntactic rule that dictates when it should and shouldnot appear? Which rule of English does the presence of the pronoun in thesesentences remind you of?
Due Monday, December 9.
Assignment 12: Semantics II
1. Translate the sentences below into truth-conditional logic.You should first break each sentence down into its various atomic statements(using upper-case letters to represent each statement), and then use connectivesto relate the statements. Note that the sentences contain various sortsof deletion, so you need to reformulate them first.
Example: "Jack and Jill went up the hill."
P = Jack went up the hill Q = Jill went up the hill
(a) A bear or a wolf frightened the boys.
(b) Susan doesn't like squash or turnips.
(c) John and Bill are going to the movies, but not Tom.
(d) Either John and Mary are going to the museum, or I am going to bed.
(e) Peter likes the Village People and Mary K.C. and the Sunshine Band.
2. Draw truth tables for the following expressions:
3. Let P, Q and R be true and let S be false. Find the truthvalues for the following statements:
4. Let's define a new connective in addition to AND ( ), OR (v)and NOT(¬), calling it IF-THEN (->). We need this connective tocapture the meaning of conditional sentences like:
a) If it rains, we will stay indoors.
Here are two possible truth tables, defining the meaning of IF-THEN.Which one seems closer to the meaning of conditional sentences in English?Why?
This course is an introduction to the scientific study of language. The bulk of this course will involve covering the core areas of linguistic theory–phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The rest of the course will cover cross-cutting ways to study phenomena in these core areas, including the study of language in society (sociolinguistics), language change (historical linguistics), language and the mind & brain (psycholinguistics & neurolinguistics), language acquisition, computational linguistics, and practical applications of linguistics.
The rest of the course will cover. cross-cutting ways to study phenomena in these core areas, including. the study of language in society (sociolinguistics), language change. (historical linguistics), language and the mind & brain. (psycholinguistics & neurolinguistics), language acquisition,. computational linguistics, and practical applications of linguistics.. If you are used to taking notes on your laptop or a tablet, please just bring traditional pen and paper instead, and then transfer your notes to your computer after class.. Please do the reading for each day before the lecture!. You will not understand the material covered in lecture as well otherwise.. If you have a question about course content that may be relevant to other students in the course, we strongly encourage you to post it to the Ted discussion board for this class.. Electronic communications about course content should be made through the Ted discussion board (see above).. If we determine that cheating or plagiarism has taken place, it will be reported to UCSD's Office of the Academic Integrity Coordinator, in accordance with UCSD policy.. Changing a graded homework assignment or exam and returning it for a regrade.. We were originally going to have a seventh assignment but ran out of time; therefore everyone will automatically get full 7.5% credit toward their course grade for that homework assignment that never happened.. Two midterms – one covering phonetics, phonology, and morphology on Monday 3 November , and one covering syntax, semantics, and pragmatics on Wednesday 3 December (each is worth 15% of your grade each).. A cumulative final exam on Friday 19 December (22% of your grade).. The following will be taken into consideration favorably when assessing borderline grade cases: Regular attendance in class, having done the assigned readings beforehand, and active participation in class discussions; Active participation in the optional section meetings; Active participation in Ted discussion lists, including (thoughtfully!). Homework assignments may be turned in up to six days late, but they will be downgraded 10% per day .
This course is an introduction to the scientific study of language. The bulk of this course will involve covering the core areas of linguistic theory—phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The rest of the course will cover cross-cutting ways to study phenomena in these core areas, including the study of language in society (sociolinguistics), language change (historical linguistics), language and the mind & brain (psycholinguistics & neurolinguistics), language acquisition, computational linguistics, and practical applications of linguistics.
The rest of the course will cover. cross-cutting ways to study phenomena in these core areas, including. the study of language in society (sociolinguistics), language change. (historical linguistics), language and the mind & brain. (psycholinguistics & neurolinguistics), language acquisition,. computational linguistics, and practical applications of linguistics.. We will be using WebCT for administering homework assignments and. various surveys, and as a discussion forum for all participants in the. class.. If you have a question about course. content that may be relevant to other students in the course, we. strongly encourage you to post it to the WebCT discussion board for. this class.. Active,. positive contributions to the discussion boards will be given. favorable consideration in determining final grades.. WeekDayTopic & ReadingMaterialsHomework AssignmentsWeek 17 Jan Class Introduction Files 1.0-1.6 Beginning of Class Survey (WebCT)9 Jan Phonetics 1 : introduction & articulatory phonetics; English consonantsFiles 2.0-2.2 Homework 1 goes out 11 Jan Phonetics 2 : English vowelsFile 2.3Week 214 Jan Phonetics 3 : sounds of the world's languagesFile 2.4, Powerpoint Slides16 Jan Phonetics 4: suprasegmental; acoustic phoneticsFiles 2.5-2.618 Jan Phonology 1 : phonemes and allophonesFiles 3.0-3.1 Homework 1 due, Homework 2 goes out Week 321 Jan Martin Luther King Holiday, no class 23 Jan Phonology 2 : phonological rulesFile 3.225 Jan Phonology 3 : phonolotactic constraints; syllables; foreign accents; phonology problemsFiles 3.3 & 3.5Week 428 Jan Morphology 1 : derivation vs. inflection; free vs. bound (lecture by Rebecca Colavin)Files 4.0-4.1 Homework 3 goes out 30 Jan Morphology 2 : morphological processes & hierarchal structureFiles 4.2 & 4.4 Homework 2 due 1 Feb Morphology 3 : morphological types of languages; morphology problemsFiles 4.3 & 4.5Week 54 Feb Syntax 1 : word order, lexical categories, agreement, constituency, grammatical roles (lecture by Rebecca Colavin)Files 5.0-5.2 Homework 4 goes out 6 Feb Syntax 2 : identifying lexical categories; start phrase structure (lecture by Rebecca Colavin)Files 5.3 & 5.4 Homework 3 due 8 Feb Syntax 3 : more phrase structure; word order typologyFiles 5.4 & 5.6Week 611 Feb Syntax 4 : tests for constituency; syntax problems (lecture by Rebecca Colavin)File 5.513 Feb Syntax 5 : review constituency tests15 Feb Midterm Exam!. (covers phonetics through syntax) Homework 4 due Week 718 Feb President's Day, no class 20 Feb Semantics 1 Files 6.0-6.2 Homework 5 goes out 22 Feb Semantics 2 Files 6.3-6.4Week 825 Feb Semantics 3 File 6.527 Feb Pragmatics 1 Files 7.0-7.2 Homework 5 due, Homework 6 goes out 29 Feb Pragmatics 2 Files 7.3-7.4Week 93 Mar Pragmatics 3 File 7.55 Mar Language in Society Chapter 10 Homework 6 due, Homework 7 goes out 7 Mar Language Change I Chapter 12Week 1010 Mar Language Change II Language Reconstruction Handout12 Mar Practical Applications of Linguistics (why this is a great field!). If we determine that cheating or. plagiarism has taken place, it will be reported to UCSD's Office of. the Academic Integrity Coordinator, in accordance with UCSD policy.. Participation in three hours of the Human Subject Pool. ( http://experimetrix2.com/ucsd/ ): each hour of participation counts as. 1% of your grade, plus a 1% bonus for participation in all three. hours .. You are encouraged to participate in language-related. experiments, and to participate in these experiments early—the last. day for participation is March 12, and there is no guarantee that. there will be experiment slots open for participation in the latest. part of the quarter.. Regular attendance in class, having done the assigned readings. beforehand, and active participation in class discussions;. At the end of the quarter, we will drop your lowest-scoring homework. assignment; the 45% of your grade from homework will be derived from. the rest of your homeworks.
This assignment is due at the beginning of the Monday lecture class on September 16. Be sure to write your TA's name and your recitation day on the top of your assignment. All future assignments should also be handed in at the beginning of the Monday lecture class in the week that they are due. Assignments will be returned in recitation sections, beginning on the Friday after they are handed in.
Assuming the correctness of these judgments,. what rule or rules could a speaker use to generate the grammatical sentences. (2a) and (2c) but not generate the ungrammatical sentence in (2b).. Write a. description of the rules needed to generate the grammatical sentences in (3). and (4).. Your rules should not generate the ungrammatical sentences.. *There are a painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee hanging on the wallb.There is a painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee hanging on the wall.c.There's a painting by Picasso and a painting by Klee hanging on the wall.. Mark the incomprehensible but. grammatical sentences in (A) with a number sign (#).. American Sign Language Read the discussion of deaf sign language in Pinker and the Perlmutter article. in the bulk pack before answering this question.. Consider the issue of iconicity in American Sign. Language (ASL) in light of the following evidence.. In a curious parallel, deaf children who are learning. to sign will display, at the same age, the tendency to confuse the signs for. 'you' and 'me.'. Based on the assumption. that ASL is a true language, would you expect hearing children (who are not. exposed to ASL) to make the same mistake as deaf children when responding to. pointing?. While fingerspelling is not a grammatical part of ASL, many signs in ASL are. signed with the handshape of the first letter in the English word --. 'language' is signed with the "l" shape, 'class' with the "c" shape, and. 'water' with a "w".
Linguistics COM 101 FINAL EXAM, Linguistics Assignment Help, Choose the correct IPA symbol
NOT The main verb of the sentence is the intransitive verb "cut," and "ourInternet service" is the object of thepreposition "off.". OR The main verb ofthe sentence is the transitive verb "pay,"and "the bill" functions as its direct object.. OR the main verb of the sentence is a modal verb.... The main verb of this sentence is in the __________ tense.. In a sentence in which the main verb is in the passive voice, the recipient of the verb's action is found .... Which one of the following sentences is. Which of the following sentences. Which of the following sentences
To help students understand the wide variety of assistance with Linguistics assignment questions we have successfully delivered in the past, we are showcasing a small sample of similar University Assessments.
Q.How ‘ linguistic landscapes ’ may be used as a theoretical lens through which one might analyze and discuss the use of different languages and practices of translation to reveal the status of languages in a multilingual context. Q.Advanced Literature review: You need to write a literature review for your article related to the research project you chose in your first assignment.. Position your topic , that is, locates your topic within the existing knowledge and practice Discuss philosophical and theoretical aspects of the project Critically review the literature and Identify gaps in the literature Set the scope of the review Demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the topic.. Your brief for Assessment 1 is to write a project brief that includes a set of recommendations for redesigning the linguistic landscape ( visual, linguistic, aural and oral ) of a setting where language(s) and literacy/ies are key issues.. Write a 1000 word essay summarizing the current context and the set of ideas and initiatives that you would like to develop and the reasons for this.. Discuss with this person your ideas for how your chosen context might be developed and ask them what they think about your ideas and whether they would be useful for this setting.. To what extent did the interview support your initial ideas?
Are you interested to extend your thought clearance in language? Well, your insight over linguistics research topics to explain better.
The study paper on linguistics is the independently published research paper demonstrating a student’s ability to evaluate language literature (words, idioms, phrases).. How computers hurt modern language Text messaging’s a contribution to the emergence of a modern linguistic subculture How the brain functions when learning a foreign language The evolution of terms over time When it comes to expressing feelings, how powerful is nonverbal communication?. How people communicate when they don’t speak the same language How valuable is it to learn more than one language as a child?. Importance of language and its effect on the behavior of the human race An analysis of the differences as well as similarities of Post-Tudor English How language promotes gender disparities 3.. An investigation into the relationship between thought as well as language The role of language in the formation of cross-cultural bonds Study of language in informal as well as formal settings How does one’s age impact their English pronunciation?. Discuss about the reasons behind learning sign language for everyone What are the advantages of learning sign language at the early age?. A review of the literature on eye-tracking technology and its implications for the development of applied linguistics A thorough review of applied linguistics research methods How important is the field of applied linguistics developing?. Causes of language death What are endangered languages?. English as a second language assessment Endangered languages as well as causes of language extinction Attitudes toward a language and language learning in childhood Using a combination of modern language and code-switching Linguistic as well as cognitive changes What is computational linguistics, as well as what does it entail?. Linguistic as well as cultural diversity as a matter of education Adult language learning differs from that of children.. Factors that influence a language’s ability to be learned A linguistics forensic examination Grammatical as well as lexical changes Most effective ways to acquire second language acquisition What is the significance of a language?. The significance and contribution of Greek philosophers to language Importance of the over 30,000 preserved cuneiform writings Early speculations regarding the origin of various language The history of language with respect to mythology What are the aspects of the origin of language?. A critical analysis of the origin and development of language The ancient connection between English and French words Why do people speak different languages?. Interpretations of communication Linguistic theories Evolution of modern linguistics Effect of language origin on humans Moving from structuralism to post-structuralism Evolution of English language Importance of Phonetics in communication Comparison between US English and UK English Compare and contrast between Shakespearean English and modern-day English Importance of grammar learning to learn a language People who choose English as a second language Difference between Australian English and UK English Origin of the English Language Impact of Latin language in English Difference between communicative English and written English Impact of socio-cultural background on children’s language learning
IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 PDF Download FREE BEGC 101 Indian Classical Literature Solved Assignment , IGNOU Last Date Extended
The word theatre derives from the ancient Greek name for this space, theatron, which means “seeing place.” The most common dramatic art form is theatre or drama.. In theatre, actors play characters and act out the story for an audience.. There are four Samhitas: the oldest is the Rgveda Samhita, or the ‘collection of verses’, (dated circa 1500-1000 B.C.E.. KARNA’S CHARACTER Maharathi Karna was the most tragic and unfortunate character of The Mahabharata and at the same time, he was the most powerful of all.. Thousand times Karna received disgrace in the name of caste.. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet (s).
Q. 1. Discuss the revival of Political theory. Ans. Political Theory is not Dead: The political theory during the last sever.....BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Up to the Second World War political science generally meant the study of state and different political organisations and institutions such as legislature executive, judiciary political parties pressure groups, etc.. A large number of scholars from Europe migrated to America and many of them began serious research work on political theory and their interest did not lie in the study of political theory in traditional way.. State: Differences on Account of Political Institutions/Social ContextThere are differences in states in terms of their political institutions and in terms of the social context within which they are situated and which they try to maintain.. The various forms in the process of historical evolution of state are: Tribal State, Oriental Empire, Greek City State, Roman World Empire, Feudal State and the Modern Nation State.. The liberal and Marxist perspectives dominates the modern concept of state and the liberal perspective is dynamic as it has changed with time depending on interests and needs of individuals and the society.. According to the Marxist notion, the liberal idea of state is rejected calling the state as an instrument of class and seeks to establish a classless and stateless society through the proletarian revolution liberal and Marxist perspectives dominates the modern concept of state and the liberal perspective is dynamic as it has changed with time depending on interests and needs of individuals and the society.